He also wrote The House of Austria in the Thirty Years' War (1869), Great Britain and Hanover (1899),(1899), The Electress Sophia and the Hanoverian Succession (1903); he edited Crabbe's Poems (2 vols., 1905-1906) and Pope's Poetical Works (1869); he wrote the volumes on Chaucer and Dickens in the "English Men of Letters" series, translated Curtius's History of Greece (5 vols., 1868-1873); he was one of the editors of the Cambridge Modern History, and with A.
In 1848, when Prussia made war on Denmark, Lauenburg was occupied at her own request by some Hanoverian troops, and was then administered for three years under the authority of the German confederation, being restored to Denmark in 1851.
In 1823 he had been made secretary of the archives, and in 1827 principal keeper of the royal library at Hanover; from 1832 to 1837 he edited the Hannoverische Zeitung, and more than once sat as a representative in the Hanoverian second chamber.
He was descended from an old Hanoverian family, his father, Karl von Bennigsen, being an officer in the Hanoverian army, who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments.
Bennigsen, having studied at the university of Gottingen, entered the Hanoverian civil service.
He was a zealous Hanoverian, and a favourite with Queen Anne in spite of his Whiggism.
Though his family, on both sides, had been devoted to the house of Stuart, Carteret was a steady adherent of the Hanoverian dynasty.
He sprang from a Roman Catholic family which for some generations had held important posts in the Hanoverian civil service.
In the next year the revolution opened for him, as for so many of his contemporaries, the way to public life, and he was elected as representative for his native district in the second chamber of the reformed Hanoverian parliament.
Her beauty, grace and vivacity exercised a great charm over her contemporaries, the enthusiasm for her, however, being probably not merely personal but one inspired also by her misfortunes and by the fact that these misfortunes were incurred in defence of the Protestant cause; later, as the ancestress of the Protestant Hanoverian dynasty, she obtained a conspicuous place in English history.
The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.
Whatever had been the prospects of the Hanoverian army five days previously, it was now surrounded by twice its numbers, and on the 29th of June the capitulation of Langensalza closed its long and honourable career.
The Bavarians did, however, advance, and made for the Eisenach-Gotha region, where the Prussian-Hanoverian struggle was in progress.
On the capitulation of the Hanoverian army in 1803 Hameln fell into the hands of the French; it was retaken by the Prussians in 1806, but, after the battle of Jena, again passed to the French, who dismantled the fortifications and incorporated the town in the kingdom of Westphalia.
In 1814 it again became Hanoverian, but in 1866 fell with that kingdom to Prussia.
In 1862-1863 he took an active part in a movement for reform within the Hanoverian Church, and he was a member of the synod which passed the new constitution.
He naturally shared Harley's downfall; and, though the loss of his salary might seem a poor reward for his constant support of the Hanoverian claim, it was little more than his ambiguous, not to say trimming, position must have led him to expect.
The harsh treatment of the Hanoverian demands was inspired by him, and won favour with the queen, while Oxford's influence declined; and by his support of the Schism Bill in May 1714, a violent Tory measure forbidding all education by dissenters by making an episcopal licence obligatory for schoolmasters, he probably intended to compel Oxford to give up the game.
He had supported by turns and simultaneously Jacobite and Hanoverian interests.
In the adjacent gardens an open rotunda encloses a marble bust of the philosopher Leibnitz, and near it is a monument to General Count von Alten, the commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo.
The last, begun in 1859, was almost completed in 1866, but was never occupied by the Hanoverian royal family.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
It included the present governmental department of Minden, but by far the larger part of the kingdom lay outside and chiefly to the east of the modern province, and comprised the Hanoverian department of Hildesheim and in part that of Arensberg, Brunswick, the northern part of the province of Saxony as far as the Elbe, Halle, and most of Hesse-Cassel.
The district was given to various cadets of the ruling house of Brunswick, one of these being Ernest Augustus, afterwards elector of Hanover, and the ancestor of the Hanoverian kings of Great Britain and Ireland.
It was taken by Duke William of Weimar in 163 2; in 1761 its walls were dismantled, and, after being alternately Prussian and Hanoverian, it passed finally in 1866 with Hanover to Prussia.
From 1793 the Hanoverian troops fought for the Allies against France, until the treaty of Basel between France and Prussia in 1795 imposed a forced neutrality upon Hanover.
A strong supporter of the Hanoverian succession, he was one of the three officers of state to whom on the death of Anne was entrusted the duty of appointing a regent till the arrival of George I., whom he crowned pn the 31st of October 1714.
On the death of Anne in 1714, George, elector of Hanover, eldest son of Sophia (youngest child of the princess Elizabeth), and Ernest, elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, or Hanover, consequently became sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and, notwithstanding somewhat formidable attempts in behalf of the elder Stuart line in 1715 and 1745, the Hanoverian succession has remained uninterrupted and has ultimately won universal assent.
These orders have not been conferred since 1866, when Hanover ceased to be a kingdom, and the Royal Guelphic Order, which from its institution was more British than Hanoverian, not since the death of William IV.
The Hanoverian fort and batteries, which formerly protected the town, have been removed, and their place is supplied by four modern forts, with revolving turtleback turrets, lower down.
At his uncle's desire he rejected the Hanoverian for the Danish service, and in 1759 took his seat in the German chancery at Copenhagen.
The Hanoverian government, backed by the Frankfort diet, was still more successful in its warfare with the moderate reformers whom it was pleased to treat as revolutionists; and in Austria the feudalists so completely gained the upper hand that on the 18th of August 1855 the government signed a concordat, by which the state virtually submitted itself to the control of the church.
On the 24th of December Saxon and Hanoverian troops occupied Holstein in the name of the German Confederation, and supported by their presence and the favor of the population the prince of Augustenburg, as Duke Frederick VIII., assumed the government.
After 1870 the Hanoverian regiment was disbanded, but the sequestration continued.
The marriage of the duke of Cumberland (the title by which the king called himself till he could come into his possessions) with Princess Thyra of Denmark in the same year was made the occasion of a great demonstration, at which a deputation of the Hanoverian nobility assured the duke of their continued attachment to his house.
Of these the most important were the so-called Guelphs (Welf en), described by themselves as the Hannoverische Rechtspartei, member of the old Hanoverian nobility who represented the rural districts of Hanover and still regarded the deposed King George V.
1899, when the emperor ordered that the Hanoverian regiments in the Prussian army should be allowed to assume the names and so continue the traditions of the Hanoverinn army which was disbanded in 1866.
Of England (9th May 1826) elevated the duke's Hanoverian possessions to a dukedom under the title of Aremberg Meppen.
He gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy (1897), an account of Alastair Ruadh Macdonell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy.
He was one of the founders of the German Nationalverein, and in 1864 he was elected a member of the Hanoverian parliament as a Liberal and an opponent of the government.
William gave way, but similar Hanoverian demands later caused great searchings of heart and divisions among the preachers.
The negotiations were constantly disturbed by Jacobite intrigues with France in favour of James VIII.; by Scottish adherence to the Act of Security, which might give Scotland a king other than a Hanoverian in succession to Anne; and by the hanging of an Englishman, Captain Green, for piracy on a lost Scottish vessel (1705).
On the death of Johann Matthias Gesner at GÃ¶ttingen in 1761, the vacant chair was refused first by Ernesti and then by Ruhnken, who persuaded Miinchhausen, the Hanoverian minister and principal curator of the university, to bestow it on Heyne (1763).
His father, Simeon Poisson, served as a common soldier in the Hanoverian wars; but, disgusted by the ill-treatment he received from his patrician officers, he deserted.
As a young lieutenant in the Westphalian artillery he was wounded and taken prisoner at the battle of Leipzig (1813), subsequently entered the Hanoverian service, and in 1823 that of Prussia.
In default of her own issue, Anne's personal choice would probably have inclined at this time to her own family at St Germains, but the necessity of maintaining the Protestant succession caused the enactment of the Act of Settlement in 1701, and the substitution of the Hanoverian branch.
The wish expressed by the Whigs, that a member of the electoral family should be invited to England, had already aroused the queen's indignation in 1708; and now, in 1714, a writ of summons for the electoral prince as duke of Cambridge having been obtained, Anne forbade the Hanoverian envoy, Baron Schutz, her presence, and declared all who supported the project her enemies; while to a memorial on the same subject from the electress Sophia and her grandson in May, Anne replied in an angry letter, which is said to have caused the death of the electress on the 8th of June, requesting them not to trouble the peace of her realm or diminish her authority.
On the 27th of April Anne gave a solemn assurance of her fidelity to the Hanoverian succession to Sir William Dawes, archbishop of York; in June she sent Lord Clarendon to Hanover to satisfy the elector.
The modern theory of the relations between the sovereign and the parties, by which the former identifies himself with the faction for the time in power while maintaining his detachment from all, had not then been invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained the struggle, though without success, to rule independently, finding support in Harley.
At the Hanoverian university he remained till his death, being much occupied with administrative work as pro-rector for a number of years, and for nearly the whole of his residence troubled by ill-health (phthisis).