Of the laymen, the educated copied manuscripts, the others worked at various handicrafts or at agriculture.
Tarrasa is now mostly a modern industrial town, with fine public buildings, including the royal college, built in 1864 for 450 students besides day scholars, the school of arts and handicrafts, the industrial institute, chamber of commerce, hospitals, town hall, clubs, theatres and many large textile factories.
" By this new departure (19th of October 1781) the Jews were permitted to learn handicrafts, arts and sciences, and with certain restrictions to devote themselves to agriculture.
Acquired in handicrafts by so many otherwise idle and useless hands.
The principal manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, carvings in ivory and working in metals, &c., all of which handicrafts are chiefly carried on in the eastern states.
There is a school of the industrial arts and handicrafts, and majolica, paper, and silk cocoons are produced.
The towns from an early date made it their policy to suppress the exercise of all handicrafts in the open country.
Most of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture; but a great variety of handicrafts is also carried on.
He learned and practised several small handicrafts, and devoting his nights to study of the most miscellaneous description earned a pittance by teaching.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
In addition to persons of high rank, poets, legendary and others (Linus, Orpheus, Homer, Aeschylus and Sophocles), legislators and physicians (Lycurgus, Hippocrates), the patrons of various trades or handicrafts (artists, cooks, bakers, potters), the heads of philosophical schools (Plato, Democritus, Epicurus) received the honours of a cult.
Another source of error in the manufacturing census of the United States is that the words of the census law are construed as requiring an enumeration of the various trades and handicrafts, such as carpentering.
Their inmates, when not engaged in religious services, occupy themselves with husbandry, fishing and various handicrafts; the standard of intellectual culture is not high.
In the curious poem in the Sallier papyrus (II.), written about 1800 B.C., Duan, son of Khertu, expatiates on the effects of divers handicrafts on the workmen as compared with the elevating influences of a literary life.
The educational establishments of the town include a gymnasium, a realgymnasium, a realschule, technical schools for building and handicrafts, a high-class commercial school, a school of agriculture, and an academy of music. The most notable industry of Erfurt is the culture of flowers and of vegetables, which is very extensively carried on.
Moulders, blacksmiths, carpenters, tinsmiths, stonemasons, bookbinders, painters and various other trades and handicrafts are the peculiar province of the "stars."
Most trades and handicrafts are practised, such as shoemaking, tailoring, carpentry, the work of whiteand Report of the Royal Commission on Penal Servitude (1878-1879).
The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of the Aryan settler, the Vaisya; whilst handicrafts, gradually multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were assigned to the subject race.
In Alemtejo, and still more in Algarve, Arab and Berber types are common; and the influence of these races can everywhere be discerned in the architecture, handicrafts and speech of the peasantry.
From the 16th century to the 18th many artistic handicrafts were practised by the Portuguese in imitation of the fine pottery, cabinetwork, embroideries, &c., which they imported from India and Persia.
Humanists, such as Damiao de Goes, and scientists, such as the astronomer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), played conspicuous parts in the great intellectual movements of the time; a distinctive school of painters arose, chief among them being the so-called " Grao Vasco " (Vasco Fernandes of Vizeu); in architecture the name of King Emanuel was given to a new and composite style (the Manoeline or Manoellian), in which decorative forms from India and Africa were harmonized with Gothic and Renaissance designs; palaces, fortresses, cathedrals, monasteries, were built on a scale never before attempted in Portugal; and even in the minor arts and handicrafts - in goldsmith's work, for example, or in pottery - the influence of the East made itself felt.
Its educational institutions include ecclesiastical seminaries, a lycee, a preparatory school of medicine and pharmacy, a university with free faculties (facultes libres) of theology, law, letters and science, a higher school of agriculture, training colleges, a school of arts and handicrafts and a school of fine art.
The gipsies, who are mostly converts to the Orthodox Church, still, as a rule, cling to their vagabond existence, though their skill at all handicrafts finds them ready employment in the towns.
Nevertheless certain of the oases are famous individually for one or more handicrafts: for instance, Khotan for its silks, white carpets and felt goods; Kashgar and Turfan for cottons, Kucha and Kara-shahr for leather and saddlery, Ak-su for felts and leather and metal goods, Yarkand for silks, carpets and felts, and Urumchi and Uch-Turfan for sulphur.
A school of handicrafts flourishes on the Sphendone of the Hippodrome.
Primary education in the state schools is free and compulsory; the reading of Church Slavonic, nature-study and agriculture (for boys), domestic science (for girls), certain handicrafts, singing and gymnastics are among the subjects taught.
She presided over all handicrafts, inventions, arts and sciences.
Plebeian handicrafts assert their right to be represented on an equality with learned professions and wealthy corporations.
The peculiar feature of Russian industry is the development out of the domestic petty handicrafts of central Russia of a semifactory on a large scale.
The rise to power of the equestrian order in Rome during the last century of the Republic had to some extent modified the old Roman principle that trade and commerce were beneath the dignity of the governing class; but long after the fall of the Republic the aristocratic notion survived in Rome that industry and handicrafts were only fit for slaves.
In the first decades after the establishment of independence the resources and energies of the nation were absorbed in the task of occupying the vacant spaces of a continent, and sub-, duing it to agriculture; and so long as land was so abundant that the spreading population easily sustained itself upon the fruits of the soil, and satisfied the tastes of a simple society with the products of neighborhood handicrafts, there was no incentive to any real development of a factory economy.
Public education is not, however, entirely in the hands of the priesthood and nuns; there are an institute, a normal school to train teachers, a school of arts and handicrafts, a nautical school and numerous public primary schools for both sexes.