The chief work done in instrumentation in the 17th century is undoubtedly that of the Italian writers for the violin, who developed the technique of that instrument until it proved not only more resourceful but more artistically organized than that ' of the solo voice, which by the time of Handel had become little better than an acrobatic monstrosity.
In the art of [Bach and Handel, instrumentation, as distinguished from choral;writing, has attained a definite artistic coherence.
But the treatment of instruments in Bach and Handel has a radical difference from that of the art which was soon to succeed it.
Handel and J.
Among musical organizations may be mentioned the Handel and Haydn Society (1815), the Harvard Musical Association (1837), the Philharmonic (1880) and the Symphony Orchestra, organized in 1881 by the generosity of Henry Lee Higginson.
Geering, Handel and Industrie d.
The guidance of Hans Richter has given us a sure bulwark against the misrepresentation of Wagner; and so there is hope that Wagner may yet be saved from such an oblivion in fetish-worship as has lost Handel to us for so long.
There are many valuable official publications which may be consulted, among these being: Statistik des hamburgischen Staates (1867-1904); Hamburgs Handel and Schiffahrt (1847-1903); the yearly Hamburgischer Staatskalender; and Jahrbuch der Hamburger wissenschaftlichen Anstalten.
NUbling, Ulms Handel and Gewerbe im Mittelalter (Ulm, 1892-1900); G.
Cecilia, whose musical fame rests on a passing notice in her legend that she praised God by instrumental as well as vocal music, has inspired many a masterpiece in art, including the Raphael at Bologna, the Rubens in Berlin, the Domenichino in Paris, and in literature, where she is commemorated especially by Chaucer's "Seconde Nonnes Tale," and by Dryden's famous ode, set to music by Handel in 1736, and later by Sir Hubert Parry (1889).
Beck, Mainz and sein Handel (Mainz, 1881).
It has been musically treated by Handel and Mendelssohn.
Even the naïf pictorial suggestion, of which free use is made in the Creation and in the Seasons, is closer to the manner of Handel than to that of the 19th century: it is less the precursor of romance than the descendant of an earlier realism.
Matthaei, Die Handel Ottos II.
Gewerbe und Handel ins deutschen Reich flack der gewerblichen Betriebszahlung, vom 1~l.
Heeren's chief works are: Ideen fiber Politik, den Verkehr, and den Handel der vornehmsten Volker der alien Welt (2 vols., GÃ¶ttingen, 1 7931 79 6; 4th ed., 6 vols., 1824-1826; Eng.
Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.
Schwarz, Landgraf Philipp von Hessen and die Packschen Handel (Leipzig, 1881); J.
Heeren, Ideen ber Politik, Handel und Verkehr der alten Welt, i.
Shadwell, Industrial Efficiency (London, 1906); Berliner Jahrbuch fur Handel and Industrie (1905); and O.
Handel was appreciated in Dublin at a time when it was still the fashion to decry him in London.