Among his principal publications are An Examination of Ferrier's "Knowing and Being," and the Scottish Philosophy - (a work which gave him the reputation of being an independent Hamiltonian in philosophy); Memoir of John Brown, D.D.
If the system is supposed to obey the conservation of energy and to move solely under its own internal forces, the changes in the co-ordinates and momenta can be found from the Hamiltonian equations aE aE qr = 49 - 1 57., gr where q r denotes dg r ldt, &c., and E is the total energy expressed as a function of pi, qi,.
To this reaction Hamilton explicitly appealed in the convention of 1787; and of this reaction various features of the constitution, and Hamiltonian federalism generally, were direct fruits.
It is, however, unquestionably true, that as a startling protest against measures" to silence,"in Jefferson's words," by force and not by reason the complaints or criticisms, just or unjust, of our citizens against the conduct of our agents,"they served, in this respect, a useful purpose; and as a counterblast against Hamiltonian principles of centralization they were probably, at that moment, very salutary; while even as pieces of constitutional interpretation it is to be remembered that they did not contemplate nullification by any single state, and, moreover, are not to be judged by constitutional principles established later by courts and war.
He summed up as follows the difference between himself and the Hamiltonian group: "One feared most the ignorance of the people; the other the selfishness of rulers independent of them."