Deep); the Hallstatter-see or Lake of Hallstatt (1629 ft.
The capital of the district is Gmunden, and other places of importance are Ischl, Hallstatt and Ebensee (7656), which are important salt-mining centres.
116) they comprised as many as 112 different tribes, and from the remains discovered in the tombs at Hallstatt, La Tene and other places, they appear to have been fairly civilized.
Myres, the Sigynnae of Herodotus were "a people widely spread in the Danubic basin in the 5th century B.C.," probably identical with the Sequani, and connected with the iron-working culture of Hallstatt, which produced a narrow-bladed throwing spear, the sigynna spear (see notice of "Anthropological Essays" in Classical Review, November 1908).
Hallstatt Period (in Germany 8th5th century B.C.).The Hallstatt stage of culture, named after the famous cemetery in upper Austria, is marked by the introduction of iron (see HALLSTATT).
In Brandenburg, Lusatia, Silesia, Posen and Saxony, where there was no strong Bronze age tradition, Hallstatt influence is very noticeable.
The culture of the Homeric Achaeans corresponds to a large extent with that of the early Iron Age of the upper Danube (Hallstatt) and to the early Iron Age of upper Italy (Villanova).
Important deposits of rocksalt occur in the Keuper at Berchtesgaden, in the Bavarian Alps; at Hall in Tirol and at Hallein, Hallstatt, Ischl and Aussee in the Salzkammergut in Austria.
These graves have been further examined since the war, and have yielded material which is said to connect with Thessaly and Hallstatt (S.
HALLSTATT, a market-place of Austria, in Upper Austria, 67 m.
The salt mine of Hallstatt, which is one of the oldest in existence, was rediscovered in the 14th century.
The excavations (1847-1864) revealed a form of culture hitherto unknown, and accordingly the name Hallstatt has been applied to objects of like form and decoration since found in Styria, Carniola, Bosnia (at Glasinatz and Jezerin), Epirus, north Italy, France, Spain and Britain (see Celt).
Everywhere else the change from iron weapons to bronze is immediate, but at Hallstatt iron is seen gradually superseding bronze, first for ornament, then for edging cutting instruments, then replacing fully the old bronze types, and finally taking new forms of its own.
There can be no doubt that the use of iron first developed in the Hallstatt area, and that thence it spread southwards into Italy, Greece, the Aegean, Egypt and Asia, and northwards and westwards in Europe.
From Hallstatt, were the most famous iron mines of antiquity, which produced the Noric iron and Noric swords so prized and dreaded by the Romans (Pliny, Hist.
The graves at Hallstatt were partly inhumation partly cremation; they contained swords, daggers, spears, javelins, axes, helmets, bosses and plates of shields and hauberks, brooches, various forms of jewelry, amber and glass beads, many of the objects being decorated with animals and geometrical designs.
Greaves were found at Glasinatz and Jezerin, though not at Hallstatt; two helmets were found at Hallstatt and others in Bosnia; broad bronze belts were numerous, adorned in repousse with beast and geometric ornament.
Brooches are found in great numbers, both those derived from the primitive safety-pin ("Peschiera" type) and the "spectacle" or "Hallstatt" type found all down the Balkans and in Greece.
The Hallstatt culture is that of the Homeric Achaeans (see Achaeans), but as the brooch (along with iron, cremation of the dead, the round shield and the geometric ornament) passed down into Greece from central Europe, and as brooches are found in the lower town at Mycenae, 1350 B.C., they must have been invented long before that date in central Europe.
But as they are found in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age, the early iron culture of Hallstatt must have originated long before 1350 B.C., a conclusion in accord with the absence of silver at Hallstatt itself.
See Baron von Sacken, Das Grabfeld von Hallstatt; Bertrand and S.
It is not unlikely that, as tradition states, there were incursions of Celts from central Gaul into Ireland during the general Celtic unrest in the 6th century B.C. It is certain that at a later period invaders from the continent, bringing with them the later Iron Age culture, commonly called La Tene, which had succeeded that of Hallstatt, had settled in Ireland.