The latter covered all non-halakic exposition and was essentially popular.
The book of Jubilees (a haggadic and halakic Midrash on Genesis, about 2nd century B.C.), contains the story of the war between Amorite Kings and Jacob (ch.
2 However this may be, the independent Halakoth (where the oral decisions are interpreted or discussed on the basis of the Old Testament) were gradually collected and arranged according to their subject in the Mishnah and Tosephta (Talmud, § 1), while in the halakic Midrashim (where the decisions are given in connection with the biblical passage from which they were derived) they follow the sequence of the text of the Old Testament.
4, 5d, e, and 7 below) is the halakic exordium which precedes the proems .3 Among the more important Midrashim are: i.
" rule ") best known as the name of a now imperfect halakic Midrash on Exod.
" the book ") or Torath Kohanim (" the law of the priests "), a commentary on Leviticus, mainly halakic, the text being a source for various maxims. (On Lev.
- A very similar but larger collection of 51 homilies, of which 28 have a halakic exordium prefixed to the Tanhuma-proems, perhaps of 9th century.
Abrahams has pointed out to the present writer) a good deal of haggada, but far more halakic material than those which follow.
By the help of a tradition - a " haggadic " or " halakic " Midrash (q.v.
Aqiba had an important share in the early development of the Mishnah (Strack, pp. 19, 89); and, in the collecting of material, he was followed notably by the school of Ishmael (about 130-160 A.D.), which has left its mark upon the early halakic Midrashim (see Midrash, § 5, i-3).
The halakoth are fuller and sometimes older than the corresponding decisions in the Mishnah, and the treatment is generally more haggadic. 1 The method of making the discussions part of an interpretation of the Old Testament (halakic Midrash), as exemplified in the Tosephta, is apparently older than the abstract and independent decisions of the Mishnah - which presuppose an acquaintance with the Pentateuchal basis - and, like the employment of narrative or historical Midrash (e.g.
For other halakic literature which goes back to the period of the Tanna'im, see the Mekilta, Siphra and Siphre, art.
Hence the value of the teaching, whether halakic or haggadic, rests upon its intrinsic worth, and not upon the exegetical principles which were the tools common to the age.