De Castro, Stonia d haifa dat 1789 at 1814 (1881).
Giuseppe Ferraris Rivoluzioni d haIfa (1858) deserves notice as a work of singular vigour, though no great scientific importance, and Cesare Balbos Sommario (Florence, 1856) presents the main outlines of the subject with brevity and clearness.
Here we find open plant associations of Haifa or Esparto Grass (Stipa lenacissima) alternating with steppes of Chih (Artemisia herba-alba); and each plant association extends for several scores of miles.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
From 1250 in 1885, of which 903 were in Europe and 347 in Asia, the mileage of railways had increased to some 4440 in 1909, of which 1377 are in Europe, 1810 in Asia Minor, 418 in Syria and 835 fall to the share of the Hejaz railway, including the Ed-Dera-Haifa branch.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
Central,: The Mahal, or Marisi, from Korosko to Wadi Haifa (second cataract).
It is the chief town of the Haifa mudiria, is 770 m.
Haifa is the northern terminus of the Sudan railway and the southern terminus of a steamboat service on the Nile, which, running to Shellal (Assuan), connects there with the Egyptian railways.
Wadi Haifa is a general designation including the native village of that name, the camp, founded by the British in 1884 as their base in the operations for the relief of General Gordon, and the civil cantonment established at the same time.
The village of Wadi Haifa is 3 m.
At Wadi HaIfa the figures in each case are one degree lower.
At Assuan the mean value for the year is only 38%, that for the summer being 29%, and for the winter 51%; while for Wadi Haifa the mean is 32%, and 20% and 42% are the mean values for summer and winter respectively.
From the few observations that exist, it seems that farther south the southern winter winds decrease rapidly, becoming westerly, until at Assuan and Wadi Haifa the northerly winds are almost invariable throughout the year.
In the deserts haifa grass and several kinds of thorn bushes grow; and wherever rain or springs have moistened the ground, numerous wild flowers thrive.
Another line connects at Wadi Haifa with the Sudan system, affording direct telegraphic communication via Khartum and Gondokoro with Uganda and Mombasa.
On the 7th of August 1897 Colonel Hunter surprised and annihilated a weak Dervish garrison at Abu Hamed, to which place, by the 31st of October 1897, a railway had been laid across the Nubian desert from Wadi Haifa, a distance of 230 m., the record construction of 5300 yds surveyed, embanked and laid in one day having been attained.
He built a temple far up the Nile at Wadi Haifa and there set up a stela commemorating his victories over the tribes of Nubia.
The capture and destruction of this important place were followed by the capture of Tyre, Sidon, Haifa, Athlit and Beirut, and thus Syria was cleared of the Crusaders.
This, and General Gordons proposal to send 200 British troops to Wadi Haifa, was opposed by Sir E.
Batteries, together with a large extension of the Wadi Haifa railway, eleven steamers, and three hundred more whale-boats, would be required.
In April 1886 the frontier was drawn back to Wadi Haifa, a fortified camp at the northern end of the desolate defile, Batn-el-Hagar, through which the Nile tumbles amid black, rocky hills in a succession of rapids, and debouches on a wide plain.
The troops were concentrated at Wadi Haifa; the railway reconstruction, under Lieutenant E.
The railway up the right bank of the Nile was continued to Kerma, in order to evade the difficulties of the 3rd cataract; but the sirdar had conceived the bold project of cutting off the great angle of the Nile from Wadi Haifa to Abu Hamed, involving nearly 600 m.
Including the 4th cataract, by constructing a railway across the Nubian desert, and so bringing his base at Wadi Haifa within a few hours of his force, when it should have advanced to Abu Hamed, instead of ten days.
Early in 1897 this new line of railway was commenced from Wadi Haifa across the great Nubian.
Across; while farther south, at Haifa, it is of still greater width, and opens into the extensive Merj Ibn `Amir (Plain of Esdraelon) by which almost the whole of Western Palestine is intersected.
South of Haifa the promontory of Carmel once more effaces the plain; here the passage along the coast is barely .200 yds.
Among the perennial streams may be mentioned the Na'aman, south of Acre; the Mukatta` Kishon, at Haifa; the Nahr ez-Zerka, sometimes called the Crocodile River - so named from the crocodiles still occasionally to be seen in it; the Nahr el-Falik; the `Aujeh a few miles north of Jaffa and the Nahr Rubin.
The range of Carmel (highest point 1810 ft.) must also be included in this district; it runs from the central point above mentioned - though interrupted by many passes - to the end of the promontory which makes the harbour of Haifa, at its foot, the best on the Palestine coast.
A railway from Haifa to Damascus was opened in 2905; it runs across the Plain of Esdraelon, enters the Ghor at Beisan, then, turning northwards, impinges on the Sea of Galilee at Samakh, and runs up the valley of the Yarmuk to join, at ed-Der`a, the line of the third railway.
Of completed roads the most important are from Jaffa to Haifa, Jaffa to Nablus, Jaffa to Jerusalem, Jaffa to Gaza; Jerusalem to Jericho, Jerusalem to Bethlehem with a branch to Hebron, Jerusalem to Khan Labban - ultimately to be extended to Nablus; and Gaza to Beersheba.
Haifa to Tiberias and to Jenin); but in this respect the northern province is far behind the southern.
Unlike the ill-fated American communities, these hardy WUrttemberg peasants have flourished in Palestine, and their three colonies - at Jaffa, Haifa, and Jerusalem - are the most important European communities now in the country Since 1870 there has been a steady development of Jewish immigration, consisting principally of refugees from countries where anti-Semitism is an important element in politics.
ACRE, ` Akka, or ST Jean D'Acre, the chief town of a governmental district of Palestine which includes Haifa, Nazareth and Tiberias.
But trade is now passing over to Haifa, at the south side of the bay, as its harbour offers a safer roadstead, and is a regular calling .place for steamers.