In width, the broad gently-rolling slopes of the Great Cumberland or Hagerstown Valley occupying its eastern and the Appalachian Ridges its western portion.
In Hagerstown Valley are rich red or yellow limestone-clay soils.
The Indian-corn, wheat and livestock sections of the state, are in the Piedmont Plateau, the Hagerstown Valley and the central portion of the East Shore.
The largest secondary centres are Cumberland, Hagerstown and Frederick the total value of whose factory products in 1905 was less than $10,000,000.
The chief cities are Baltimore, pop. (1910) 55 8, 4 8 5, Cumberland 21,839, Hagerstown 16,507, Frederick 10,411 and Annapolis 8609.
On the i 3 th of September Jackson was besieging i 1,000 Federals in Harper's Ferry, Longstreet was at Hagerstown, Stuart's cavalry holding the passes of the South Mountain, while McClellan's whole army lay at Frederick.
Their goods were carried in Conestoga wagons to Shippensburg and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and Hagerstown, Maryland, taken from there to Pittsburg on pack horses, and exchanged for Pittsburg products; these products were carried by boat to New Orleans, where they were exchanged for sugar, molasses, &c., and these were carried through the gulf and along the coast to Baltimore and Philadelphia.
The Wabash and Erie canal (1843), which connected Lake Erie with the Ohio river, entering the state in Allen county, east of Fort Wayne, and following the Wabash river to Terre Haute and the western fork of the White river from Worthington, Greene county, to Petersburg, Pike county, whence it ran south-south-west to Evansville; and the White Water canal from Hagerstown, Wayne county, mostly along the course of the White Water river, to Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio River, in the south-eastern corner of the state, although now abandoned, served an important purpose in their day.