Of Amsterdam, connected by steam-tramway with Haarlem and Amsterdam, and on the North Holland canal.
In 1254 it received a charter from William II., count of Holland, similar to that of Haarlem, but in the 15th century duke Philip the Good of Burgundy made the impoverishment of the town, due to ill-government, the excuse for establishing an oligarchical regime, by charters of 1436 and 1437.
As the captial of the ancient district of Kennemerland between den Helder and Haarlem, Alkmaar frequently suffered in the early wars between the Hollanders and the Frisians, and in 1517 was captured by the united Gelderlanders and Frisians.
Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.
The primatial see was placed at Malines (Mechlin), having under it Antwerp, Hertogenbosch, Roermond, Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres constituting the Flemish province; the second archbishopric was at Cambray, with Tournay, Arras, St Omer, and Namur, - the Walloon province; the third at Utrecht, with Haarlem, Middleburg, Leeuwarden, Groningen and Deventer, - the northern (Dutch) province.
The famous defence of Haarlem, lasting through the winter of 1572 to July 1573, cost the besiegers 12,000 lives, and gave of the insurgent provinces time to breathe.
The example Siege Haarlem of Haarlem was followed by Alkmaar, and with better and success.
Van der Aa, Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden (22 vols., Haarlem, 1852-1878).
ABRAHAM KUENEN (1828-1891), Dutch Protestant theologian, the son of an apothecary, was born on the 16th of September 1828, at Haarlem, North Holland.
By the generosity of friends he was educated at the gymnasium at Haarlem and afterwards at the university of Leiden.
See Peter Scriver, Beschryvinge der Stad Harlem (Haarlem, 1628); Scheltema, Levensschets van Laurens d.
Koster (Haarlem, 1834); Van der Linde, De Haarlemsche Costerlegende (Hague, 1870).
Other noteworthy buildings are the Gothic town hall, founded in 1449 and rebuilt in 1690, and the weigh-house, built by Pieter Post of Haarlem (1608-1669) and adorned with a fine relief by Barth.
Tuyn, Oude Hollandsche Dorpen aan de Zuiderzee (Haarlem, 1900).
C. de Jongke (Haarlem, 1858); Annales des Provinces-Unies, by J.
PETER SCHRIJVER (1576-1660), Dutch author, better known as Scriverius, was born at Haarlem on the 12th of January 1576.
Historic (1611, 4 parts); Beschryvinghe van Out Batavien (Arnheim, 1612); Het oude gontsche Chronycxken van Hollandt, edited by him, and printed at Amsterdam in 1663; Principes Hollandiae Zelandiae et Frisiae (Haarlem, 1650), translated (1678) into Dutch by Pieter Brugman.
HAARLEM, a town of Holland in the province of North Holland, on the Spaarne, having a junction station 11 m.
Haarlem is the seat of the governor of the province of North Holland, and of a Roman Catholic and a Jansenist bishopric. In appearance it is a typical Dutch town, with numerous narrow canals and quaintly gabled houses.
At, the head of the scientific institutions of Haarlem may be placed the Dutch Society of Sciences (Hollandsche Maatschappij van Wetenschappen), founded in 1752, which possesses valuable collections in botany, natural history and geology.
Besides these there are a museum of ecclesiastical antiquities, chiefly relating to the bishopric of Haarlem; the old weigh-house (1598) and the orphanage for girls (1608), originally an almshouse for old men, both built by the architect Lieven de Key of Ghent.
The staple industries of Haarlem have been greatly modified in the course of time.
But about the close of the 18th century this remarkable prosperity had also come to an end, and it was not till after the Belgian revolution of 1830-1831 that Haarlem began to develop the manufactures in which it is now chiefly engaged.
Market-gardening, especially horticulture, is extensively practised in the vicinity, so that Haarlem is the seat of a large trade in Dutch bulbs, especially hyacinths, tulips, fritillaries, spiraeas and japonicas.
Haarlem, which was a prosperous place in the middle of the 12th century, received its first town charter from William II., count of Holland and king of the Romans, in 1245.
In 1572 Haarlem joined the revolt of the Netherlands against Spain, but on the 13th of July 1573, after a seven months' siege, was forced to surrender to Alva's son Frederick, who exacted terrible vengeance.
See Karl Hegel, Steidle and Gilden (Leipzig, 1891); Allan, Geschiedenis en beschrijving van Haarlem (Haarlem, 1871-1888).
Haarlem Lake >>
It is connected by steam tramway with Haarlem and The Hague respectively, and with the seaside resorts of Katwyk and Noordwyk.
The earliest "pensionaries" in Holland were those of Dort (1468) and of Haarlem (1478).
The success which followed his labours not only in the town of Utrecht, but also in Zwolle, Deventer, Kampen, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Gouda, Leiden, Delft, Zutphen and elsewhere, was immense; according to Thomas Kempis the people left their business and their meals to hear his sermons, so that the churches could not hold the crowds that flocked together wherever he came.
It was in the days of Duke Philip that Lorenz Koster of Haarlem contributed his share to the discovery of printing.
It has communication by railway and canal in every direction; steam-tramways connect it with Edam, Purmerend, Alkmaar and Hilversum, and electric railways with Haarlem and the seaside resort of Zandvoort.
The nucleus of this unsurpassed national collection of pictures was formed out of the collections removed hither from the Pavilion at Haarlem, consisting of modern paintings, and from the town-hall, the van der Hoop Museum and the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam.
Soon he settled in Haarlem, as engraver on copper, and produced works which retain high values.
In 1631 he formed the surviving members of the chapters of Utrecht and Haarlem into a collegiate body which became known as the chapter of Utrecht.
1767) two suffragan sees were created, that of Haarlem in 1742, that of Deventer in 1757.
Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden (Haarlem, 1851-1879); J.
1498-1543 or 1544) having taken the Anabaptist teaching to Holland, there arose in Haarlem a preacher of vengeance, Jan Matthisson or Matthyszoon (Matthys) (d.
Trans., Religion and Historic Faiths (London, 1907); Haarlem Series, Die Voornaamste Godsdiensten, beginning with Islam, by Dozy (1863 onwards); Soc. for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Non-Christian Religions; Hibbert Lectures on The Origin and Growth of Religion (15 vols., beginning with F.
Here the sect had gained considerable influence, through the adhesion of Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, and several prominent citizens; and the leaders, Johann Matthyszoon or Matthiesen, a baker of Haarlem, and Johann Bockholdt, a tailor of Leiden, had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town and deposing the magistrates.
Hofmann (Haarlem, 1883-1885); Erbkam, Gesch.