GYTHIUM, the harbour and arsenal of Sparta, from which it was some 30 m.
21 f.) has left us a description of the town as it existed in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the agora, the Acropolis, the island of Cranae (Marathonisi) where Paris celebrated his nuptials with Helen, the Migonium or precinct of Aphrodite Migonitis (occupied by the modern town of Marathonisi or Gythium), and the hill Larysium (Koumaro) rising above it.
The most important towns, besides Sparta and Gythium, were Bryseae, Amyclae and Pharis in the Eurotas plain, Pellana and Belbina on the upper Eurotas, Sellasia on the Oenus, Caryae on the Arcadian frontier, Prasiae, Zarax and Epidaurus Limera on the east coast, Geronthrae on the slopes of Parnon, Boeae, Asopus, Helos, Las and Teuthrone on the Laconian Gulf, and Hippola, Messa and Oetylus on the Messenian Gulf.
The district has been divided into two departments (nomes), Lacedaemon and Laconia, with their capitals at Sparta and Gythium respectively.
Besides the excavations undertaken at Sparta, Gythium and Vaphio, the most important were those at the Apollo sanctuary of Amyclae carried out by C. Tsountas in 1890 ('E(1577µ.
The term apella does not occur in extant Spartan inscriptions, though two decrees of Gythium belonging to the Roman period refer to the p€y&Xac 67r4XXac (Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique, ii., Nos.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
-- A system differing widely both in units and names from the preceding is found on the standard slab of Gythium in the southern Peloponnesus (Rev. Arch., 1872).
Gythium being the southern port of Greece, it seems not too far to connect this 58 cub.
Though unsuccessful at sea, he almost annihilated Nabis's land force near Gythium, but was prevented by the Roman Flamininus from taking Sparta.
He is also represented leaning on a staff while a huge serpent rears itself up behind him, or (on a coin from Gythium),,a serpent seems to come to him from a well.
They inhabited a large number of settlements, varying in size from important towns like Gythium to insignificant hamlets (Isocrates Xll.
Yet traces of a pre-deistic and animistic period survived here and there; for instance, in Arcadia we find the thunder itself called Zeus (ZEUs Kepavvos) in a Mantinean inscription, 2 and the stone near Gythium in Laconia on which Orestes sat and was cured of his madness, evidently a thunder-stone, was named itself Zeus Kainreoras, which must be interpreted as " Zeus that fell from heaven "; 3 we here observe that the personal God does not yet seem to have emerged from the divine thing or divine phenomenon.
From its seaport, Gythium - made it invulnerable to a maritime attack.
On the departure of the Romans he succeeded in recovering Gythium, in spite of an attempt to relieve it made by the Achaeans under Philopoemen, but in an encounter he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of that general, who for thirty days ravaged Laconia unopposed.