He began in 1502 in the service of the Cardinal-legate Raymond Peraudi; and in the next few years he visited Freiberg (where he extracted 2000 gulden in two days), Dresden, Pirna, Leipzig, Zwickau and Gorlitz.
In addition, a fine of 150,000 golden gulden was levied on the city, and used to build the "Spanish Citadel" on the site of what is now the public park.
The king gave him an annual grant of 1200 gulden (120), considerably enlarging it before the end of the year, and placing a comfortable house in the outskirts of the city at his disposal.
The immediate result was the title of imperial councillor, with a yearly salary of 4000 gulden (December 6th, 1802); but it was not till 1809 that he was actively employed.
The emperor was merciful enough to leave it in possession of its privileges, but he inflicted a fine of 80,000 gold gulden, and until October 1547 the citizens had to endure the presence of from 8000 to 10,000 soldiers.
In 1792 the citizens had to pay 2,000,000 gulden to the French general Custine; and in 1796 Kleber exacted 8,000,000 francs.
He stated that that of the archbishop of Mainz had been raised from ten to twenty-five thousand gulden, and that there had been seven vacancies within a generation, and consequently the subjects of the elector had been forced to pay that amount seven times.
He had asserted that, owing to the habit of foreclosing small mortgages, " any one with a hundred gulden could gobble up a peasant a year."
In north German politics he interfered vigorously to protect his brotherin-law the Margrave Louis of Brandenburg against the lords of Mecklenburg and the dukes of Pomerania, with such success that the emperor, Charles IV., at the conference of Bautzen, was reconciled to the Brandenburger and allowed Valdemar an annual charge of 16,000 silver marks on the city of Lubeck (1349) Some years later Valdemar seriously thought of reviving the ancient claims of Denmark upon England, and entered into negotiations with the French king, John, who in his distress looked to this descendant of the ancient Vikings for help. A matrimonial alliance between the two crowns was even discussed, and Valdemar offered, for the huge sum of 600,000 gulden, to transport 12,000 men to England.
In the following year a more modest proposal was made by the Crown in the shape of a capitation of six gulden, to be levied on every nobleman at the beginning of a campaign, for the hiring of mercenaries.
The additional revenue gained by the Crown from Masovia was at first but 14,000 gulden per annum.
At the same time, by the compact of Rastawica, the sejm undertook to allow the Cossacks, partly as wages, partly as compensation, 40,000 (raised by the compact of Kurukow to 60,000) gulden and 170 wagons of cloth per annum.
The annual budget was fixed at 30,000,000 Polish gulden,' out of which a regular army of 30,000 2 men was to be maintained.
Gulden =5 silber groschen.
Arany sent in his work, and shortly afterwards was awarded the 25-gulden prize (7th of February 1846) by the society, which then advertised another prize for the best Magyar epic poem.
Educated as a Catholic by his mother, he was on the death of Stephen Bathory elected king of Poland (August 19, 1587) chiefly through the efforts of the Polish chancellor, Jan Zamoyski, and of his own aunt, Anne, queen-dowager of Poland, who lent the chancellor 10o,000 gulden to raise troops in defence of her nephew's cause.
The reorganization of the mint alone increased the royal revenue by 210,000 gulden a year and enabled Sigismund to pay the expenses of his earlier wars.
Barbara brought him a dower of ioo,000 gulden and the support of the Magyar magnates, but the match nearly brought about a breach with the emperor Maximilian, jealous already of the Jagiello influence in Hungary.
Throughout the whole of the south of Germany and in some North German states the gulden and kreuzer prevailed.
The first matter was .the debt, amounting to over 3000 million gulden, in addition to the floating debt, which had been contracted during recent years.
The Hungarians laid down the principle that they were in no way responsible for debts contracted during a time when they had been deprived of their constitutional liberties; they consented, however, to pay each year 291million gulden towards the interest.
The whole responsibility for the payment of the remainder of the interest, amounting annually to over a hundred million gulden, and the management of the debt, was left to the Austrians.
The peace of San Stefano violated the engagements made by Russia, and Andrassy was therefore compelled to ask for a credit of 60 million gulden and to mobilize a small portion of the army; the money was granted unanimously in the Hungarian Delegation, though the Magyars disliked a policy the object of which appeared to be not the defence of Turkey against Russia, but an agreement with Russia which would give Austria compensation at the expense of Turkey; in 1 See General Le Brun, Souvenirs militaires (1866-1870, Paris, 1895); also, Baron de Worms, op. cit., and the article on Beust.
The opposition in the Delegations, which met at the end of the year, was so strong that the government had to be content with a credit to cover the expenses for 1879 of less than half what they had originally asked, and the supplementary estimate of 40,000,000 gulden for 1878 was not voted till the next year.
Hitherto the currency had been partly in silver (gulden), the "Austrian currency " which had been introduced in 1857, currency partly in paper money, which took the form of notes issued by the Austro-Hungarian Bank.
The bank by its charter had the sole right of issuing notes, but during the war of 1866 the government, in order to raise money, had;itself issued notes (Staatsnoten) to the value of 312 million gulden, thereby violating the charter of the bank.
The unit in the new issue was to be the krone, divided into loo Keller; the krone being almost of the:same value (24-25th) as the franc. (The twenty-krone piece in gold weighs 6.775 gr., the twenty-franc piece 6.453.) The gold krone was equal to 42 of the gold gulden, and it was declared equal to .5 of the silver gulden, so much allowance being made for the depreciation of silver.
The first step towards putting this act into practice was the issue of one-krone pieces (silver), which circulated as half gulden, and of nickel coins; all the copper coins and other silver coins were recalled, the silver gulden alone being left in circulation.
The coinage of the gold fourand eight-gulden was suspended.
Gulden), and was obliged to coin into twentyor ten-krone pieces all gold brought to it for that purpose.
Gulden at 4% was made, and from the gold (chiefly bar gold and sovereigns) which Rothschild, who undertook the loan, paid in, coins of the new issue were struck to the value of over 34 million kronen.
By 1894 the state was able to redeem them to the amount of 200 million gulden, including all those for one gulden.
It paid them, however, not in gold, but in silver (one-krone pieces and gulden) and in bank notes, the coins and notes being provided by the bank, and in exchange the newly-coined gold was paid to the bank to be kept as a reserve to cover the issue of notes.
In 1899 the remainder of the Staatsnoten (112 million gulden) were redeemed in a similar manner.
Then from 1st January 1900 the old reckoning by gulden was superseded, that by krone being introduced in all government accounts, the new silver being made a legal tender only for a limited amount.
For the time until the 1st of July 1908, however, the old gulden were left in circulation, payments made in them, at the rate of two kronen to one gulden, being legal up to any amount.
Gulden to the bank.
In the two latter classes all had the suffrage who paid at least ten gulden in direct taxes.
It spread over the whole of the empire; in a few years it numbered roo,000 members, and had an income of nearly 300,000 gulden; no private society in Austria had ever attained so great a success.
He employed hundreds of copyists and scholars, giving as much as ten thousand gulden for a metrical translation of Homer, and founded a library of nine thousand volumes.
His father died in January 1799; and the slender sum which Hegel received as his inheritance, 3154 gulden (about 260), enabled him to think once more of a studious life.
His income amounted at Nuremberg to 1500 gulden (130) and a house; at Heidelberg, as professor, he received about the same sum; at Berlin about 3000 thalers (L300).
On to 1532 his salary was two hundred gulden annually (about 16(3 in present money); after 1532 the stipend was increased to X240 with various payments in kind - corn, wood, malt, wine, &c. - which meant a great deal more.
The boy's gifts attracted the attention of certain Hungarian magnates, who furnished 600 gulden annually for some years to enable him to study music at Vienna and Paris.