To this day their vernacular language is Gujarati, which they have cultivated in literature and journalism.
- Bombay or Gujarati Bora wearing white and gold turban with red top.
The Kaffirs have their own organ, Ipipa lo Hlunga (the paper of grievances), issued at Maritzburg, and the Asiatics, Indian Opinion, a weekly paper started in 1903 and printed in English, Gujarati, Hindi and Tamil.
Being repudiated by his family on account of his views on widow remarriage, he became a vernacular schoolmaster, and started a weekly paper in Gujarati called The Satya Prakash.
As early as 1875 he published a volume of poems in Gujarati, followed in 1877 by The Indian Muse in English Garb, which attracted attention in England, notably from Tennyson, Max Miller, and Florence Nightingale.
These popular recitals from the Ramayan are done into Gujarati in easy, flowing narrative verse.
The chief languages of the presidency are Sindhi in Sind, Cutchi in Cutch, Gujarati and Hindustani in Gujarat, Mahratti in Thana and the central division, Gujarati and Mahratti in Khandesh, and Mahratti and Kanarese in the southern division.