The river Mahi, which passes through the states of Partabgarh and Banswara, receiving the Som, drains the south-west corner of Rajputana through Gujarat into the Gulf of Cambay.
Chief of these were the Rahtors, who ruled at Kanauj; the Chauhans of Ajmere; the Solankis of Anhilwara, in Gujarat; the Gehlots with the Sisodhyias sept, still in Mewar or Udaipur; and the Kachwaha clan, still in Jaipur.
CAMBAY, a native state of India, within the Gujarat division of Bombay.
The present chiefs are descended from Momin Khan II., the last of the governors of Gujarat, who in 1742 murdered his brother-in-law, Nizam Khan, governor of Cambay, and established himself there.
Its total course through the Central Provinces and Gujarat amounts to about Boo m., and it falls into the sea in the Bombay district of Broach.
He made overtures to his younger brother Murad, governor of Gujarat, representing that neither of their elder brothers was worthy of the kingdom, that he himself had no temporal ambition, and desired only to place a fit monarch on the throne, and then to devote himself to religious exercises and make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Portuguese, under treaty with Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, built a fort here in 1 535, but soon quarrelled with the natives and were besieged in 1538 and 1545.
The Portuguese traveller Barbosa, who visited Gujarat in A.D.
From 1411 to 1511 it grew in size and wealth; from 1512 to 1572 it declined with the decay of the dynasty of Gujarat; from 1572 to 1709 it renewed its greatness under the Mogul emperors; from 1709 to 1809 it dwindled with their decline; and from 1818 onwards it has again increased under British rule.
In 1808-09 they plundered Gujarat, and in 1812 Mirzapur.
The Pindaris were surrounded on all sides by a great army, consisting of 120,000 men and 300 guns, which converged upon them from Bengal, the Deccan and Gujarat under the supreme command of Lord Hastings in person.
A third influential Krishna-preacher of the 10th century was Swami Narayan, who was encountered by Bishop Heber in Gujarat, where his followers at this day are numerous and wealthy.
His account of his visits to England, entitled The Indian Eye on English Life (1893), passed through three editions, and an earlier book of a somewhat satirical nature, Gujarat and the Gujaratis (1883), was equally popular.
Dara, who again invaded Gujarat, was defeated and closely pursued, and was given up by the native chief with whom he had taken refuge.
It borders on Gujarat and is bounded on the N.
The point to which it was directed was the temple of Somnath on the coast of the Gujarat peninsula.
The other section occupied the Punjab and possessed themselves of the territory which the Graeco-Bactrian kings had acquired in India, that is Sind, Gujarat and Malwa.
Daulat Rao was then compelled to sign the treaty of Sarji Anjangaon (December 30, 1803), which stripped him of his territories between the Jumna and Ganges, the district of Broach in Gujarat and other lands in the south.
GULF OF CAMBAY, an inlet in the coast of India, in the Gujarat division of Bombay.
It is, however, an important inlet, being the channel by which the valuable produce of central Gujarat and the British districts of Ahmedabad and Broach is exported; but the railway from Bombay to Baroda and Ahmedabad, near Cambay, has for some time past been attracting the trade to itself.
Elsewhere in the Bombay presidency, in the Deccan and Gujarat, there are fewer facilities for irrigation than in other parts of India.
Up to the end of1896-1897the capital spent on the irrigation works of the Deccan and Gujarat was -ax.
Its special habitat is salt plains, as on the coast-line of Gujarat and Orissa, where herds of fifty does may be seen, accompanied by a single buck.
Bombay possesses three peculiar classes of Mussulmans, each of which is specially devoted to maritime trade - the Memons, chiefly in Sind; the Borahs, mainly in Gujarat; and the Khojahs, of whom half live in the island of Bombay.
They are proportionally most numerous in central and western Rajputana and in Gujarat and Central India.
In Gujarat about half the grain area is under millets or maize in ordinary years.
The large and handsome oxen of Gujarat in Bombay and of Hariana in the Punjab are excellently adapted for drawing heavy loads in a sandy soil.
In Gujarat and the arid plains of the south-east Punjab the renowned herds almost disappeared.
In Gujarat half of its 12 million cattle perished in spite of the utmost efforts to obtain fodder.
The principal cotton-growing tracts are the plains of Gujarat and Kathiawar, whence Indian cotton has received in the Liverpool market the historic name of " Surat "; the highlands of the Deccan, and the valleys of the Central Provinces and Berar.
In the interior of the Bombay presidency, business is mainly divided between two classes, the Bunniahs of Gujarat and the Marwaris from Rajputana.
The four divisions are the northern or Gujarat, the central or Deccan, the southern or Carnatic, and Sind.
The chief groups of states are North Gujarat, comprising Cutch, Kathiawar agency, Palanpur agency, Mahi Kantha agency, Rewa Kantha agency and Cambay; South Gujarat, comprising Dharampur, Bansda and Sachin; North Konkan, Nasik and Khandesh, comprising Khandesh political agency, Surgana and Jawhar; South Konkan and Dharwar, comprising Janjira, Sawantwari and Savanur; the Deccan Satara Jagirs, comprising Akalkot, Bhor, Aundh, Phaltan, Jath and Daphlapur; the southern Mahratta states, comprising Kolhapur and other states, and Khairpur in Sind.
The northern or Gujarat group includes the territories of the gaekwar of Baroda, with the smaller states which form the administrative divisions of Cutch, Paianpur, Rewa Kantha, and Mahi Kantha.
It remained under Hindu rule until 1348, when it was captured by a Mahommedan force from Gujarat; and the islands remained part of the province (later kingdom) of Gujarat till 1534, when they were ceded by Sultan Bahadur to the Portuguese.
In 1718 the city wall was completed; settlers began to stream in, especially from distracted Gujarat; and a series of wise administrative reforms increased this tendency until in 1744 the population, which in 1718 had sunk to 16,000, had risen to 70,000.
The dynasty was founded by a succession of three warriors, Damaji I., Pilaji and Damaji II., who established Mahratta supremacy throughout Gujarat during the first half of the 18th century.
The king fled to Gujarat, his army was defeated under the walls of Delhi, and the city surrendered.
After 1565, when the power of Vijayanagar was broken at the battle of Talikot, a Mussulman coalition was at last formed, and the Portuguese were confronted by a line of hostile states stretching from Gujarat to Achin; but by this time they were strong enough to hold their own.
After this he visited Malwa, Cutch, Surashtra (peninsular Gujarat, Syrastrene of the Greeks), Sind, Multan and Ghazni, whence he rejoined his former course in the basin of the Kabul river.
Amongst the many thousands of Lingas, twelve are usually regarded as of especial sanctity, one of which, that of Somnath in Gujarat, where Siva is worshipped as" the lord of Soma,"was, however, shattered by Mahmud of Ghazni; whilst another, representing Siva as Visvesvara, or" Lord of the Universe,"is the chief object of adoration at Benares, the great centre of Siva-worship. The Saivas of southern India, on the other hand, single out as peculiarly sacred five of their temples which are supposed to enshrine as many characteristic aspects (linga) of the god in the form of the five elements, the most holy of these being the shrine of Chidambaram (i.e."
Malabari, Gujarat and the Gujaratis).