The longer efforts partake of the nature of translations from sundry medieval compilations like those of Guido di Colonna and Boccaccio, which are in Latin.
Yet generals from time to time arose, the Conte Ugolino della Gheradesca at Pisa, Uguccione della Faggiuola at Lucca, the Conte Guido di Montefeltro at Florence, who threatened the liberties of Tuscan cities with military despotism.
Among his publications may be mentioned: Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Guido Starhemberg (Vienna, 1863); Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (3 vols., ib.
1124), pope from 1119 to 1124, was Guido, a member of a noble Burgundian family, who became archbishop of Vienne about 1088, and belonged to the party which favoured reform in the Church.
Had made a surrender to the emperor Henry V., Guido called a council at Vienne, which declared against lay investiture, and excommunicated Henry.
More than five centuries later (1320) Dante became the guest of Guido Novello di Polenta, lord of Ravenna, and here he died on the 14th September of the following year.
He went to Bologna, and studied under the friendly tutelage of Guido; thence he proceeded to Rome, where he painted, in the Cistercian monastery, the "Miracle of the Loaves."
The picture gallery is equally important in its way, affording a survey both of the earlier Bolognese paintings and of the works of the Bolognese eclectics of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, &c. The primitive masters are not of great excellence, but the works of the masters of the 15th century, especially those of Francesco Francia (1450-1517) and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara (1460-1535), are of considerable merit.
In the 14th and 15th centuries a branch of the Umbrian school of painting flourished here, the most famous masters of which were Guido Palmerucci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, particularly Ottaviano (d.
Maria di Provenzano, a vast baroque building of some elegance, designed by Schifardini (1594) Sant' Agostino, rebuilt by Vanvitelli in 1755, containing a Crucifixion and Saints by Perugino, a Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni, the Coming of the Magi by Sodoma, and a St Anthony by Spagnoletto (?); the beautiful church of the Servites (15th century), which contains another Massacre of the Innocents by Matteo di Giovanni and other good examples of the Sienese school; San Francesco, designed by Agostino and Agnolo about 1326, and now restored, which once possessed many fine paintings by Duccio Buoninsegna, Lorenzetti, Sodoma and Beccafumi, some of which perished in the great fire of 1655; San Domenico, a fine 13th-century building with a single nave and transept, containing Sodoma's splendid fresco the Swoon of St Catherine, the Madonna of Guido da Siena, 1281, and a crucifix by Sano di Pietro.
In the 13th century we find Guido (da Siena), painter of the wellknown Madonna in the church of S Domenico in Siena.
In the Campo Santo of Pisa; Agostino and Agnolo, who in 1330 carved the fine tomb of Bishop Guido Tarlati in the cathedral of Arezzo; Lando di Pietro (14th century), architect, entrusted by the Sienese commune with the proposed enlargement of the cathedral (1339), and perhaps author of the famous Gothic reliquary containing the head of S Galgano in the Chiesa del Santuccio, which, however, is more usually attributed to Ugolino di Vieri, author of the tabernacle in the cathedral at Orvieto; Giacopo (or Jacopo) della Quercia, whose lovely fountain, the Fonte Gaia, in the Piazza del Campo has been recently restored; Lorenzo di Pietro (Il Vecchietta), a pupil of Della Quercia and an excellent artist in marble and bronze; Francesco d'Antonio, a skilful goldsmith of the 1 6th century; Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1502), painter, sculptor, military engineer and writer on art; Giacomo Cozzarelli (15th century); and Lorenzo Mariano, surnamed 11 Marrina (16th century).
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
Count Giordano entered Florence, appointed Count Guido Novello podestd, and began a series of persecutions the city broke out between the consoli and the greater against the Guelphs.
After some disturbances Guido Novello and the Ghibellines were expelled, but it was not the popolo who triumphed; the pope and Charles were the real masters of the situation, and the Florentines found they had exchanged a foreign and Ghibelline protector for one who was foreign and Guelph.
Guido Bentivoglio >>
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
GUIDO OF AREZZO (possibly to be identified with Guido de St Maur des Fosses), a musician who lived in the 11th century.
He has by many been called the father of modern music, and a portrait of him in the refectory of the monastery of Avellana bears the inscription Beatus Guido, inventor musicae.
Occasional references to the celebrated musician in the works of his contemporaries are, however, by no means rare, and from these it may be conjectured with all but absolute certainty that Guido was born in the last decade of the 10th century.
The place of his birth is uncertain in spite of some evidence pointing to Arezzo; on the title-page of all his works he is styled Guido Aretinus, or simply Aretinus.
At his first appearance in history Guido was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Pomposa, and it was there that he taught singing and invented his educational method, by means of which, according to his own statement, a pupil might learn within five months what formerly it would have taken him ten years to acquire.
Certain it is that not long after his flight from Pomposa Guido was living at Arezzo, and it was here that, about 1030, he received an invitation to Rome from Pope John XIV.
But in spite of his success Guido could not be induced to remain in Rome, the insalubrious air of which seems to have affected his health.
In Rome he met again his former superior, the abbot of Pomposa, who seems to have repented of his conduct, and to have induced Guido to return to Pomposa; and here all authentic records of Guido's life cease.
The documents discovered by Dom Germain Morin, the Belgian Benedictine, about 1888, point to the conclusion that Guido was a Frenchman and lived from his youth upwards in the Benedictine monastery of St Maur des Fosses where he invented his novel system of notation and taught the brothers to sing by it.
In codex 763 of the British Museum the composer of the "Micrologus" and other works by Guido of Arezzo is always described as Guido de Sancto Mauro.
There is also little doubt that the names of the first six notes of the scale, ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, still in use among Romance nations, were introduced by Guido, although he seems to have used them in a relative rather than in an absolute sense.
In addition to this Guido is generally credited with the introduction of the F clef.
But more important than all this, perhaps, is the thoroughly practical tone which Guido assumes in his theoretical writings, and which differs greatly from the clumsy scholasticism of his contemporaries and predecessors.
D'Arezzo (181 I); Kiesewetter, Guido von Arezzo (1840); Kornmtiller, "Leben and Werken Guidos von Arezzo," in Habert's Jahrb.
Ristori, Biografia di Guido monaco d'Arezzo (1868).
Guido Of Siena >>
The walls by which it is surrounded were erected in 1320 by Guido Tarlati di Pietramala, its warlike bishop, who died in 1327, and is buried in the cathedral; they were reconstructed by Cosimo I.
Among the natives of Arezzo the most famous are the Benedictine monk Guido of Arezzo, the inventor of the modern system of musical notation (died c. 1050), the poet Petrarch, Pietro Aretino, the satirist (1492-1556), and Vasari, famous for his lives of Italian painters.
Of the other churches in Modena, the church of S Giovanni Decollato contains a Pieta in painted terra-cotta by Guido Mazzoni (1450-1518).
The founder of the family in England was a Norman baron, Guy or Guido de Baliol, who held the fiefs of Bailleul, Dampierre, Harcourt and Vinoy in Normandy.
The cathedral is adorned with many valuable objects of art, paintings and sculptures, by such artists as Veit Stoss, Guido Reni, Peter Vischer, Thorwaldsen, &c. Part of the ancient Polish regalia is also kept here.
GUIDO BENTIVOGLIO (1579-1644), Italian cardinal, statesman and historian, was born at Ferrara in 1579.
Bentivoglio in tempo delle sue Nunziature di Fiandria e di Francia (Cologne, 1630); Lettere diplomatiche di Guido Bentivoglio (Brussels, 1631, frequently reprinted, best edition by L.
His brother Guido Sandberger (1821-1869) was an authority on fossil cephalopoda, and together they published Die Versteinerungen des rheinischen Schichtensystems in Nassau (1850-1856).
In the palace chapel are pictures by Rembrandt, Nicolas Poussin, Guido Reni and Annibale Caracci.
Invited by Pope Formosus to deliver him from the power of Guido III., duke of Spoleto, who had been crowned emperor, Arnulf went to Italy in 894, but after storming Bergamo and receiving the homage of some of the nobles at Pavia, he was compelled by desertions from his army to return.
The restoration of peace with the Moravians and the death of Guido prepared the way for a more successful expedition in 895 when Rome was stormed by his troops; and Arnulf was crowned emperor by Formosus in February 896.
Guido Guinizzelli, a poet of the same period, writes: - "In those parts under the north are the mountains of lodestone, which give the virtue to the air of attracting iron; but because it [the lodestone] is far off, [it] wishes to have the help of a similar stone to make it [the virtue] work, and to direct the needle towards the star."
Mention of Taillefer is made by Guido, bishop of Amiens, in his Carmen de bello Hastingensi, v.
This "Brut" is unknown; but the reference has been held by some to be to (3) a Troy-book, based on Guido da Colonna's Historia Destructionis Troiae.
Guido of Citta di Castello (Tiferno), born of noble Tuscan family, able and learned, studied under Abelard and became a cardinal priest.
The papal legate Guido worked energetically on his behalf, several princes were persuaded to desert Philip and by the end of 1203 his success seemed assured.
The first direct attempt to find a sea route to India was, it is said, also made by Genoese, Ugolino and Guido de Vivaldo, Tedisio Doria and others.