These institutions are under the super- In America-vision of a branch of the ministry of the Guiana interior.
In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).
In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.
In return the state receives the produce of convict labor in Guiana and New Caledonia.
Opisthocomus hoatzin, Guiana, Venezuela and Amazon countries.
To Dr Cabanis we are indebted for the ornithological results of Richard Schomburgh's researches given in the third volume (pp. 662-765) of the latter's Reisen im Britisch-Guiana (8vo, 1848), and then in Leotaud's Oiseaux de file de la Trinidad (8vo, 1866).
Beebe, Our Search for a Wilderness (New York, 1910) which deals with the birds of Venezuela and British Guiana, while Central America is fully treated in the comprehensive and beautiful Biologia CentraliAmericana of F.
British Guiana, Ord.
America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.
Africa also furnish good rubber, as do the Forsteronia gracilis of British Guiana and Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica.
The Sapiums of Colombia and Guiana are large trees resembling Hevea, and certain species furnish good rubber, especially the Sapium Jenmani of Guiana.
Forsteronia gracilis of Guiana is a climbing plant which also belongs to the Apocynaceae.
In 1838 he resumed his editorial duties on the Atlas, but in 1840 removed, on account of his health, to British Guiana, where he lived for three years and was editor of two weekly newspapers in succession at Georgetown.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.
In 1903 and diminished slightly in the boundary adjustment with British Guiana (1904), is estimated to have been 3,228,452 sq.
The disputed boundary between Brazil and British Guiana, which involved the possession of a territory having an estimated area of 12,741 sq.
To enclose the basin of the Essequibo and its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.
Running north-east and south-east to enclose the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2° 10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the divisional line to the Atlantic coast.
The boundary with French Guiana '(see' Guiana), which had long been a subject of dispute, was settled by arbitration in 1900, the award being rendered by the government of Switzerland.
Besides these there are a narrow coastal plain, the low plains of Rio Grande do Sul, and the Guiana highlands on the northern slope of the Amazon basin below the Rio Negro.
The ranges gradually diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600 ft.
In general, Brazilian Guiana, as this plateau region is sometimes called, is one of the least attractive parts of the republic.
In the extreme north-east corner of the republic where the Brazilian Guiana plateau slopes toward the Atlantic there is a small area lying outside the drainage basin of the Amazon.
The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana under the arbitration award of 1900.
The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert.
Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is essentially distinct from the Amazon.
In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.
Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence distributed.
The same principle which dictated the conquest of French Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain.
Napoleon had forced the Portuguese government to cede to him the northernmost arm of the mouth of the Amazon as the southern boundary of French Guiana with a large slice of the unexplored interior westwards.
A few years later the Portuguese had in their turn conquered French Guiana, but had been compelled to restore it at the peace of Paris.
The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
The question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.
Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.
By British Guiana and Brazil, S.
The boundary dispute with British Guiana was settled in October 1899 by an arbitration court in Paris.
And S.W.; and (3) the Guiana highlands.
When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.
This region, together with that of the Guiana frontier, is heavily forested.
The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.
- Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.
The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.
There are six species of monkey corresponding to those of Guiana and the Amazon valley, the sloth and ant-eater, 12 known genera of rodents, including many species of Mures, the cavy, the capybara, the paca, the nutria, the agouti, the tree porcupine, Loncheres cristata, Echimys cayen and the Brazilian hare.
The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.
Of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.
In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of their subordinates, on the Cuyuni river, the charge being that they were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Venezuelan territory.
The Guiana boundary question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles of the Monroe doctrine.
On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.
Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.