RIOBAMBA or Royabamba, a town of Ecuador, capital of the province of Chimborazo, on the railway between Guayaquil and Quito, about 85 m.
There have been misunderstandings with Ecuador in regard to some small areas in the Chira valley, but it may be assumed that the line is fixed between Santa Rosa (3° 21' S.) on the Gulf of Guayaquil, and the Chinchipe river, a tributary of the Maranon.
From the Gulf of Guayaquil to the borders of the Morrope Valley, and is traversed by three rivers - the Tumbes, Chira and Piura, the two former receiving their waters from the inner Cordillera and breaking through the outer range.
The Guayaquil author, Olmedo, who wrote the famous ode on the victory of Junin, and the Limenians Felipe Pardo and Manuel Segura are names well known wherever the Spanish language is spoken.
The line then runs almost due north to the south shore of the Gulf of Guayaquil, following the western water parting of the lower Tumbez valley.
North-east of Guayaquil, and, according to Spruce, rises majestically from the valley of the Guayas, on the west, without a " positive break from the summit down to the plain."
The Guayas or Guayaquil river is in part an estuary extending northward from the Gulf of Guayaquil, bordered by mangrove swamps and mud banks formed by the silt brought down from the neighbouring mountains.
Above Guayaquil, and for 40 m.
In addition to these three river systems, there are a large number of short streams on the coast flowing into the Pacific and Gulf of Guayaquil, only two of which have any special importance in the present undeveloped state of the country.
To the vicinity of the Boca Jambeli on the southern shore of the Gulf of Guayaquil, in lat.
Immediately north of the Gulf of Guayaquil is the Bay of Santa Plena, with a small port of the same name, which has a good, well-sheltered anchorage and is the landing-place of the West Coast cable.
The Gulf of Guayaquil, which lies between the Ecuadorean and Peruvian coasts, is the largest gulf on the Pacific coast of South America between Panama and Chiloe.
Immediately west of the Guayas river the Estero Salado, which comprises a great many shallow tide-water channels, or bayous, penetrates as far inland as Guayaquil, but is used only by canoes.
There are few islands off the coast of Ecuador, and only one of any considerable size - that of Puna in the Gulf of Guayaquil, which is 29 m.
Midway in the outer part of the Gulf of Guayaquil is Amortajada or Santa Clara island, whose resemblance to a shrouded corpse suggested the name which it bears.
North of the Gulf of Guayaquil there are only two small islands on the coast of more than local interest.
Most of the country between the Andes and the sea is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary beds; but the range of hills which runs north-west from Guayaquil is formed of Cretaceous and porphyritic rocks similar to those of the Andes.
For instance, Guayaquil has a hot humid climate and mangrove swamps line the shores of Guayas down to the gulf; at Santa Elena, about 60 m.
It is to be noted that the Gulf of Guayaquil separates the humid, forestcovered coastal plain of Ecuador from the arid, barren coast of Peru, the two regions being widely dissimilar.
The population of the provincial capitals is in some cases over-estimated, especially for Guayaquil and Quito, neither of which could have had 50,000 at the date of this estimate.
Communications.-The first railway to be completed in Ecuador was the line between Guayaquil and Quito, 290 m.
On the Guayaquil route, which was begun by Garcia Moreno but has been allowed to fall into neglect.
The national capital is connected with the submarine cable at Santa Elena (via Guayaquil) and at Tumaco, in Colombia.
Guayaquil is provided with tramway and telephone lines.
The oceangoing foreign trade of the country is carried wholly in foreign vessels, for the regular lines of which Guayaquil is a principal port of call.
The total trade of the republic in 1905, according to returns published by the Guayaquil Chamber of Commerce, amounted to only £3,429,955, of which £ 1, 573,3 8 9 (1 5,733, 8 9 1 sucres) were credited to imports, and £1,856,566 (18,565,668 sucres) to exports.
In 1820 the people of Guayaquil took up the cry of liberty; and in spite of several defeats they continued the contest, till at length, under Antonio Jose de Sucre, who had been sent to their assistance by Bolivar, and reinforced by a Peruvian contingent under Andres de Santa Cruz, they gained a complete victory on May 22, 1822, in a battle fought on the side of Mount Pichincha, at a height of 10,200 ft.
A disagreement with Peru in 1828 resulted in the invasion of Ecuador and the temporary occupation of Cuenca and Guayaquil by Peruvian forces; but peace was restored in the following year after the Ecuadorian victory at Tarqui.
He abdicated in 1859 and left the country, after refusing to ratify the treaty with Peru, by which the defender of Guayaquil had obtained the raising of the siege.
A revolution headed by General Veintemilla, the Radical leader, then military commandant at Guayaquil, broke out in 1876, and on the 14th of December of that year the government forces under General Aparicio were completely routed at Galte.
His power was first restricted to Guayaquil and Esmeraldas, and finally General Rinaldo Flores drove him from Guayaquil, and Veintemilla fled (July 1883) to Peru.
Of Guayaquil, with which it is connected by a railway completed in 1908.
Latacunga stands on the old road between Guayaquil and Quito and has a station on the railway between those cities.
The varieties of sarsaparilla met with in commerce are the following: Jamaica, Lima, Honduras, Guatemala, Guayaquil and Mexican.
Guayaquil sarsaparilla is obtained chiefly in the valley of Alausi, on the western side of the equatorial Andes.
In some varieties, as the Guayaquil and Mexican, the whole plant, including the rootstock, is pulled up.
He says: The white inhabitants of Guayaquil (lat.
The consequence of this careful breeding is, that the women of Guayaquil are considered (and justly) the finest along the whole Pacific coast.
The following observation is therefore of interest: At Guayaquil for a lady of good family - married or unmarried - to be of loose morals is so uncommon, that when it does happen it is felt as a calamity by the whole community.
PIURA, the northernmost maritime department of Peru, bounded north by the Gulf of Guayaquil, N.E.
The department belongs partly to the arid coastal plain that extends from the Gull of Guayaquil southward nearly to Valparaiso, and partly to a broken mountainous region belonging to the Western Cordilleras.
Other towns of the department, with their estimated populations in 1906, are: Tumbes, or Tumbez (2300), the most northern port of Peru, on the Gulf of Guayaquil, celebrated as the place where Pizarro landed in 1531; Paita; Sechura (6450), on Sechura Bay in the southern part of the department, with exports of salt and sulphur; Sullana (5300), an inland town with railway connexions in the fertile Chira valley; Morropon (3800) on the upper Piura; Huancabamba, the centre of a tobacco district in the mountains; and Tambo Grande (6100) and Chulucanas (4600), both in the fertile Piura valley above the capital.