Frequented by sea-birds, whence come the guano deposits, the retention of ammonia and other fertilizing properties being due to the absence of rain.
The guano beds are found on the barren islands of the Guano.
Duffield, Peru in the Guano Age (ibid.
Where guano-beds are exposed to rain their soluble constituents are removed and the insoluble matters left behind.
Tanning bark, coffee and guano are also recent exports.
The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to Europe.
From the bottom of this sea they have been raised to form the dry lands along the shores of Suffolk, whence they are now extracted as articles of commercial value, being ground to powder in the mills of Mr [afterwards Sir John] Lawes, at Deptford, to supply our farms with a valuable substitute for guano, under the accepted name of coprolite manure."
Nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano and superphosphate of lime in the form of bones dissolved by sulphuric acid were now added to the list of manures, and the practice of analysing soils became more general.
Wide) and the smaller and nearly barren island of Culebra off the east coast, the island of Mona, covered with deposits of guano, off the west coast, and numerous islets.
Industries include slate quarrying, shipbuilding, iron and brass foundries, alum, vitriol, manure, guano and tobacco works.
It has a considerable shipping trade, and manufactories of tobacco and cigars, chocolate, margarine, oil, chemicals, brushes, vinegar, soap, guano and perfumery.
The geological sequence of events appears to have been the following: - After the deposition of the Eocene (or Oligocene) limestone - which reposes upon a floor of basalts and trachytes - basalts and basic tuffs were ejected, over which, during a period of very slow depression, orbitoidal limestones of Miocene age - which seem to make up the great mass of the island - were deposited; then elapsed a long period of rest, during which the atoll condition existed and the guano deposit was formed; from then down to the present time there has succeeded a series of sea-level subsidences, resulting in the formation of the terraces and the accummulation of the detritus now seen on the first inland cliff, the old submarine slope of the island.
Besides its manufactures of leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandia has a thriving export trade in fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour.
It is only when these conditions are attended to that decay and nitrification of dung, guano, fish-meal, sulphate of ammonia and other manures take place, and the constituents which they contain become available to the crops for whose benefit they have been applied to the land.
Guano, which suggests the idea that the nitrate was formed by the nitrification of this kind of excremental matter.
After this treatment the upper 2 or 3 in, of soil are well pulverized, and fertilizers added, usually, to prevent reintroduction of seeds of weeds, in the form of guano or chemical manures.
The islets of Macabi, in 7° 49' 20" S., also have guano deposits, now practically exhausted.
Long by I broad, the Ballista Islets, and farther north the three famous Chincha Islands, whose vast guano deposits are now exhausted.
The more common sea-birds are the Sula variegate or guano-bird, a large gull called the Larus modestus, the Pelecanus thayus, and the Sterna Ynca, a beautiful tern with curved white feathers on each side of the head.
The exports consist of cotton, sugar, cocaine, hides and skins, rubber and other forest products, wool, guano and mineral products.
From guano an immense revenue was derived during the third quarter of the 19th century and it is still one of the largest exports.
Internal strife at first prevented the development of her resources, and then when the export of guano and nitrates supplied her treasury with an abundance of funds the money was squandered on extravagant enterprises and in corrupt practices.
In 1848 the two London loans and accumulated interest were covered by a new loan of £3,736,400, and the home debt was partially liquidated, the sale of guano giving the treasury ample resources.
Lavish expenditure followed and the government was soon anticipating its revenues by obtaining advances from guano consignees, usually on unfavourable terms, and then floating loans.
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
In 1889 the total foreign debt, including arrears of interest, was £54,000,000, and in the following year a contract was signed with the Peruvian Corporation, a company in which the bondholders became shareholders, for the transfer to it for 66 years of the state railways,, the free use of certain ports, the right of navigation on Lake Titicaca, the exploitation of the remaining guano deposits up to 3,000,000 tons, and thirty-three annual subsidies of £80,000 each, in consideration of the cancellation of the debt.
A large increase in imports, caused by fictitious prosperity and inability to obtain drafts against guano shipments, led to the exportation of coin to meet commercial obligations, and this soon reduced the currency circulation to a paper basis.
With the vast sum raised front guano and nitrate deposits President Balta commenced the execution of public works, principally railroads on a gigantic scale.
The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast.
The exports include copper and silver and their ores, nitrate of soda, borax, guano and other minerals in small quantities.
Before 1842, when guano began to attract notice as an exportable product, Atacama was considered as Bolivian territory, and Coquimbo the extreme northern province of Chile.
It is found in the form of its acid potassium salt in many plants, especially in wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and in varieties of Rumex; as ammonium salt in guano; as calcium salt in rhubarb root, in various lichens and in plant cells; as sodium salt in species of Salicornia and as free acid in varieties of Boletus.
The soluble phosphates washed out of the guano may become fixed by entering into combination with the elements of the rock beneath.
Of guano will add to the productiveness of the crop. On good soil and in favourable seasons the yield sometimes reaches to 40 bushels per acre.
Of Mayotte, with a population of some 20 souls engaged in the collection of guano and the capture of turtles, were in 1892 annexed to France and placed under the control of the administrator of Mayotte.
To W.N.W.; the uninhabited ones, mere rocks and reefs, valuable only for their guano deposits and shark-fishing grounds, continue the chain several hundred miles farther W.N.W.
When prepared by drying and mixing with various substances, night-soil is sold as desiccated night-soil or native guano, the value of which depends upon the materials used for admixture.
Guano is a valuable manure now much employed, and may be applied to almost every kind of crop with decided advantage.
Peruvian guano is obtained from the excreta of South American sea-birds, and fish guano from the waste of fish.
Pigeon dung approaches guano in its power as manure.
In a natural state it is obtained from bones, guano and wood ashes; and in an artificial condition from basic slag or Thomas's phosphate, coprolites and superphosphate of lime.
It was subsequently visited by La Perouse (1776), Kotzebue (1816), &c. At the time of Roggeveen's discovery the island probably contained from 2000 to 3000 inhabitants of Polynesian race, who, according to their own tradition, came from Rapa Iti (Little Rapa) or Oparo, one of the Tubuai or Austral group. In 1863 a large proportion of the inhabitants were kidnapped by the Peruvians and transported to work at the guano diggings on the Chincha Islands.
Birds flock to them in great numbers; in consequence they are completely covered with guano, which gives them a snow-white appearance.
The soil is suitable for the cultivation of almost all kinds of tropical produce, and it is to be regretted that the prosperity of the colony depends almost entirely on one article of production, for the consequences are serious when there is a failure, more or less, of the sugar crop. Guano is extensively imported as a manure, and by its use the natural fertility of the soil has been increased to a wonderful extent.
Gutta, rubber, rattans, mangrove-bark, edible nuts, guano, edible birds'-nests, &c., are all valuable articles of export.
On these islands are guano deposits; the most valuable is on Ichaboe Island.
Since the removal of their guano deposits they have become practically worthless, except where they serve to shelter anchorages.
Among the non-metallic minerals are nitrate of soda, borate of lime, coal, salt and sulphur, together with various products derived from these minerals, such as iodine, sulphuric acid, &c. Guano is classed among the mineral products and still figures as an export, though the richest Chilean deposits were exhausted long before the war with Peru.
Though at the outset a mere commercial offshoot of Liverpool, Birkenhead has acquired a large export trade in coal and manufactured articles, importing guano, grain and cattle in return.
In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium; but new causes of disagreement with Chile had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the two republics.
Albany ships much cotton, and has a cotton compress, a cotton mill, cotton-seed oil and guano factories, brick yards, lumber mills and ice factories.
Herrings furnish oil and guano, and the young fish are packed as " sardines " at Juneau.
On Gunnison and Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
Several of the islands contain valuable deposits of guano and phosphate of lime, and their waters are frequented by edible and shell turtle.
The collection of guano from the islands near Walfish Bay is under government control.
In 1905 a lease of Nightingale, Inaccessible and Gough islands, for the purpose of working the guano deposits, was granted by the British government.
The island is visited by vast numbers of penguins and contains valuable guano deposits.
They are so named because frequented for their guano by traders from the United States.
Guano and mother-of-pearl shells are the principal articles of export; the population of the islands is about 300.
Coal (lignite), guano, oil and bricks are also articles of export.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.