The larvae are active and voracious little grub-like creatures (known in the United States as "wrigglers"), with large heads and jaws provided with a pair of brushes, which sweep food-particles into the mouth.
After eating the contents of the egg, the larva moults and becomes a fleshy grub with short legs and with paired spiracles close to the dorsal region, so that, as it floats in and devours the honey, it obtains a supply of air.
Grub Street elegies on the almanac maker were hawked about London.
Oak-galls, for example, are broken open by the titmouse in order to obtain the grub within, and the " button-galls " of Neuroterus numismatis, Oliv., are eaten by pheasants.
Such a typically "campodeiform" grub, moving actively about in pursuit of prey, is the one extreme of larval structure to be noticed among the Coleoptera.
Sharp; in the stag-beetle larva a series of short tubercles on the hind-leg is drawn across the serrate edge of a plate on the haunch of the intermediate legs, while in the Passalid grub the modified tip of the hind-leg acts as a scraper, being so shortened that it is useless for locomotion, but highly specialized for producing sound.
Riley, who finds that the young larva, hatched from the egg laid on the pod, has three pairs of legs, and that these are lost after the moult that occurs when the grub has bored its way into the seed.
These differences in larval form depend in part on the surroundings among which the larva finds itself after hatching; the active, armoured grub has to seek food for itself and to fight its own battles, while the soft, defenceless maggot is provided with abundant nourishment.
It lives in the grub of a gall-midge and it ultimately becomes changed into the usual white and fleshy hymenopterous larva.
Soon after his death, while the public curiosity was strongly excited about his extraordinary character and his not less extraordinary adventures, a life of him appeared widely different from the catchpenny lives of eminent men which were then a staple article of manufacture in Grub Street.
That knowledge he had derived partly from books, and partly from sources which had long been closed: from old Grub Street traditions; from the talk of forgotten poetasters and pamphleteers, who had long been lying in parish vaults; from the recollections of such men as Gilbert Walmesley, who had conversed with the wits of Button, Cibber, who had mutilated the plays of two generations of dramatists, Orrery, who had been admitted to the society of Swift and Savage, who had rendered services of no very honourable kind to Pope.
Many genera of bees are represented, like most other insects, by ordinary males and females, each female constructing a nest formed of several chambers ("cells") and storing in each chamber a supply of food for the grub to be hatched from the egg that she lays therein.
If this "royal jelly" continue to be given to the grub throughout its life, it will grow into a queen; if the ordinary mixture of honey and digested pollen be substituted, as is usually the case from the fourth day, the grub will become a worker.
Carstares, State Papers; Keith, Historical Catalogue of the Scottish Bishops (Russel's edition, 1824); Lawson, History of the Scottish Episcopal Church from the Revolution to the Present Time (1843); Stephen, History of the Church of Scotland from the Reformation to the Present Time (4 vols., 1843); Lathbury, History of the Nonjurors (1845); Grub, Ecclesiastical History of Scotland (4 vols., 1861); Dowden, Annotated Scottish Communion Office (1884).
18, 21 b); the body shortened, with the abdomen swollen, but protected with tubercles and spines, and with longish legs adapted for an active life, as in the predaceous larvae of ladybirds; the body soft-skinned, swollen and caterpillar-like, with legs well developed, but leading a sluggish underground life, as in the grub of a chafer; the body soft-skinned and whitish, and the legs greatly reduced in size, as in the wood-feeding grub of a longhorn beetle.
For example, the grub of a pea or bean beetle (Bruchus) is hatched, from the egg laid by its mother on the carpel of a leguminous flower, with three pairs of legs and spiny processes on the prothorax.
Carried to the bee's nest, it undergoes a moult, and becomes a fat-bodied grub, ready to lead a quiet life feeding on the bee's rich food-stores.
Stridulating organs among beetle-larvae have been noted, especially in the wood-feeding grub of the stag-beetles (Lucanidae) and their allies the Passalidae, and in the dung-eating grubs of the dor-beetles (Geotrupes), which belong to the chafer family (Scarabaeidae).
The carabid larva is an active well-armoured grub with the legs and cerci variable in length.
This is followed by a resting (pseudo-pupal) stage, and thisby two successive larval stages like the grub of a chafer.
Boring grub of a longhorn-beetle or of the saw-fly Sires, with its stumpy vestiges of thoracic legs; the large-headed but entirely legless, fleshy grub of a weevil; and the legless larva, with greatly reduced head, of a bee.
Gigantorhynchus gigas lives normally in the pig, but is not uncommon in man in South Russia, its larval host is the grub of Melolontha vulgaris, Cetonis auratus, and in America probably of Lachnosterna arcuata: G.
The prey is sometimes stung in the neighbourhood of the nerve ganglia, so that it is paralysed but not killed, the grub of the fossorial wasp devouring its victim alive; but this instinct varies in perfection, and in many cases the larva flourishes equally whether its prey be killed or not.
What in California are known as " flea seeds " are oak-galls made by a species of Cynips; in August they become detached from the leaves that bear them, and are caused to jump by the spasmodic movements of the grub within the thin-walled gall-cavity."
- a, Aleppo " blue " gall; b, ditto in section, showing central cavity for grub; c, Aleppo " white " gall, perforated by insect; d, the same in section (natural size).
Grub, Ecclesiastical History of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1861); J.
The larva is a thick white grub with a brownish head, bearing fleshy tubercles along its side.
A few cases, the parasitic bee grub devours not only the food-supply, but also the larva of its host.
In conjunction with the association mentioned above of the most highly developed imaginal with the most degraded larval structure, it indicates clearly that the active, armoured grub preceded the sluggish soft-skinned caterpillar or maggot in the evolution of the Hexapoda.
The perch swallows the grub-worm, the pickerel swallows the perch, and the fisher-man swallows the pickerel; and so all the chinks in the scale of being are filled.
Thus, also, you pass from the lumpish grub in the earth to the airy and fluttering butterfly.