The numbers of growers decreased from 139,000 in 1891 to 124,000 in 1905.
The corn-growers and the revenue collectors were ruined by exorbitant imposts or by the iniquitous cancelling of contracts; temples and private houses were robbed of their works of art; and the rights of Roman citizens were disregarded.
The well-known compact variety of mushroom-growers, with its white cap and dull purplish clay-coloured gills, is A.
In France mushroom-growers do not use the compact blocks or bricks of spawn so familiar in England, but much smaller flakes or "leaves" of dry dung in which the spawn or mycelium can be seen to exist.
For the slender twiggy sorts the fan form is to be preferred, while for strong growers the half-fan or the horizontal is more suitable.
The stock-breeders and graziers of the United Kingdom have, equally with the corn-growers, to face the brunt of foreign competition.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
The hulls thus burned produced an ash containing an average of 9% of phosphoric acid and 24% of potash - a very valuable fertilizer in itself, and one eagerly sought by growers of tobacco and vegetables.
A simple method of increasing the yield is that practised with success by some growers in the States.
This method is in actual use by growers of Sea Island cotton in America and in the islands off the coast of S.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
" Lusty growers and coarser than the genuine old-time Cuban ...
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
Up to the end of 1907-1908, 919 students had received the diploma of the institute, and 465 silk-growers in addition had passed through the course of instruction.
The only point of practical interest requiring mention here is the very singular fact attested by all peach-growers, that, while certain peaches are liable to the attacks of mildew, others are not.
The U.S.A. Department of Agriculture, in co-operation with local growers, devoted a great deal of attention and money to the problem, and Sumatra tobacco of very high quality is now produced in Florida and Connecticut.
The plants are slow growers and must have plenty of sun heat; they require sandy loam with a mixture of sand and bricks finely broken and must be kept dry in winter.
A year or two later certain vine-growers in the South of France began to complain of the new vine-disease.
The vine-growers were at their wits' end to account for this new plague, which threatened to be even more costly than the oidium.
In France, where the disease was by far the most prevalent - owing in great part to the obstinacy with which the vine-growers at first refused to take any reasonable precautions against its spread - M.
The high price received by the hill growers of the Burley induced farmers in the Blue Grass to plant Burley tobacco there, where the crop proved a great success, more than twice as much (sometimes 2000 lb) being grown to the acre in the Blue Grass as in the hills and twice as large patches being easily managed.
The planters in the Black Patch had met a combination of the buyers by forming a pool, the Planters' Protective Association, into which 40,000 growers were forced by " night-riding " and other forms of coercion and persuasion, and had thus secured an advance to I I cents a pound from the "regie " buyers and had shown the efficacy of pooling methods in securing better prices for the tobacco crop. Following their example, the planters of the Burley formed the Burley Tobacco Society, a Burley pool, with headquarters at Winchester and associated with the American Society of Equity, which promoted in general the pooling of different crops throughout the country.
Members of the pool had used force to bring planters into the pool; and now some tobacco growers, especially in the hills, planted new crops in the hope of immediate return, and a new " night-riding " war was begun on them.
Whilst objecting to the prevention of the export of wool, he proposes a tax on that export as somewhat less injurious to the interest of growers than the prohibition, whilst it would "afford a sufficient advantage" to the domestic over the foreign manufacturer.
Yearling sets are largely planted, but the experiments of Krabe tend to prove, and the practice of the best Midland and West of England growers confirms, the superior productiveness of sets cut from two yearling rods.
Among other provincial agencies for Agri imparting information there are farmers' institutes, cultural travelling dairies, live-stock associations, farmers', dairymen's, seed-growers', and fruit-growers' associa- tions tions, and agricultural and horticultural societies.
Soon assumed national proportions in the Canadian Seed Growers' Association, which, with the seed branch of the department of agriculture mentioned above, has done much to raise to a uniform standard of excellence the grain grown over large areas of the Canadian wheat-fields.
Robertson, led to the Macdonald-Robertson Seed Growers' Association.
The principal cereals cultivated are Indian corn (product, 53,75 0, 000 bushels in 1908) and wheat; the cultivation of the latter, formerly remunerative, declined on account of the competition of the Western States, but revived after 1899, largely owing to the efforts of the Georgia Wheat Growers' Association (organized in 1897), and in 1908 the yield was 2,208,000 bushels.
Other important firms, Tuscan wine-growers, oil-growers, timber traders, colour manufacturers, &c., have their head offices and stores at Leghorn, with a view to export.
This increased production of medium silk, and the growing demand for fine sorts, induced many of the cocoon-growers in the Levant to sell their cocoons to Europeans, who reeled them in Italian fashion under the name of " Patent Brutia," thus producing a very fine valuable silk.
Many gardeners are still afraid to disturb an unsuitable subsoil, but experienced growers have proved that by bringing it up to the surface and placing plenty of manure in the bottoms of the various trenches, the very best results are attained in the course of a season or so.
The fact that rents are so heavy around Paris is in itself an indication of the money that is realized by the growers not only in the Paris markets, but also in Covent Garden.
High are cultivated on a large scale by some growers for market.
The area under cotton increased enormously, and the growers managed to retain in their own hands a fair share of the profit.
By the Maidstone growers the best plants are considered to be obtained from layers.
The McKinley Bill reduced revenues by its high and in many cases almost prohibitive duties; it put sugar on the free list with a discriminating duty of 30th of one cent a pound on sugar imported from countries giving a bounty for sugar exported, and it gave bounties to American sugar growers; it attempted to protect many "infant" industries such as the manufacture of tin-plate; under its provision for reciprocal trade agreements (a favourite project of James G.
Between 1707 and 1740 many Scottish immigrants, traders, teachers and tobacco-growers settled along the upper Rappahannock, and, uniting with the borderers in general, they offered strong resistance to the older planters on the James and the York.
The linen manufacture by degrees ceased to be a domestic industry, and began to centre in and become the characteristic factory employment of special localities, which depended, however, for their supply of raw material primarily on the operations of small growers, working, for the most part, on the poorer districts of remote thinly populated countries.
Owing to greater care on the part of growers, and the introduction of FrenchAmerican resistant stocks to replace vines attacked by the phylloxera, the wines in the early years of the 10th century again acquired a limited sale in England.
The industry received a powerful stimulus from the loss of the Spanish colonies in 1898, which freed the Spanish growers from the rivalry of their most successful competitors in the home market.