- Gregorian Calendar.
On the 30th of November 1895 there was a massacre of Armenians, in which several Gregorian priests and Protestant pastors lost their lives.
The Gregorian correction of the calendar in 1582 has once more led to different days being observed.
So far as Western Christendom is concerned the corrected calendar is now universally accepted, and Easter is kept on the same day, but it was not until 1752 that the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted in Great Britain and Ireland.
Jealousy of everything emanating from Rome still keeps the Eastern churches from correcting the calendar according to the Gregorian reformation, and thus their Easter usually falls before, or after, that of the Western churches, and only very rarely, as was the case in 1865, do the two coincide.
The Armenians are Christians, mostly of the national Gregorian Church (979,566), though 34,000 are Roman Catholics.
After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national (Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury.
In 1613 he appeared with the emperor Matthias before the diet of Ratisbon as the advocate of the introduction into Germany of the Gregorian calendar; but the attempt was for the time frustrated by anti-papal prejudice.
It Is No Longer A Living Spirit Among The People At Large; But In Secluded Villages And " Back Concessions " One Can Still Hear Some Charming Melodies As Old And Pure As The Verses To Which They Are Sung, And Even A Few Quaint Survivals Of Gregorian Tunes.
According To The Gregorian Rule Of Intercalation, Therefore, Every Year Of Which The Number Is Divisible By Four Without A Remainder Is A Leap Year, Excepting The Centurial Years, Which Are Only Leap Years When Divisible By Four After Omitting The Two Ciphers.
As The Gregorian Method Of Intercalation Has Been Adopted In All Christian Countries, Russia Excepted, It Becomes Interesting To Examine With What Degrees Of Accuracy It Reconciles The Civil With The Solar Year.
46 Sec. Now The Gregorian Rule Gives 97 Intercalations In 400 Years; 400 Years Therefore Contain 365 X400 97, That Is, 146,097 Days; And Consequently One Year Contains 365.2425 Days, Or 365 Days 5 Hours 49 Min.
It Is Perhaps Unnecessary To Make Any Formal Provision Against An Error Which Can Only Happen After So Long A Period Of Time; But As 3323 Differs Little From 4000, It Has Been Proposed To Correct The Gregorian Rule By Making The Year 4000 And All Its Multiples Common Years.
It Implies A Year Differing In Excess From The True Year Only By 19.45 Sec., While The Gregorian Year Is Too Long By 26 Sec. It Produces A Much Nearer Coincidence Between The Civil And Solar Years Than The Gregorian Method; And, By Reason Of Its Shortness Of Period, Confines The Evagations Of The Mean Equinox From The True Within Much Narrower Limits.
It Is Therefore Infinitely More Commodious To Determine The Commencement Of The Year By A Fixed Rule Of Intercalation; And Of The Various Methods Which Might Be Employed, No One, Perhaps Is On The Whole More Easy Of Application, Or Better Adapted For The Purpose Of Computation, Than The Gregorian Now In Use.
Its Adoption Upon Our Present Gregorian Calendar Would Only Require The Suppression Of The Usual Bissextile Once In Every 128 Years, And There Would Be No Necessity For Any Further Correction, As The Error Is So Insignificant That It Would Not Amount To A Day In 100,000 Years.
But At The End Of A Century The Order Is Interrupted In The Gregorian Calendar By The Secular Suppression Of The Leap Year; Hence The Cycle Can Only Be Employed During A Century.
This Long Period, However, May Be Reduced To Four Hundred Years; For Since The Dominical Letter Goes Back Five Places Every Four Years, Its Variation In Four Hundred Years, In The Julian Calendar, Was Five Hundred Places, Which Is Equivalent To Only Three Places (For Five Hundred Divided By Seven Leaves Three); But The Gregorian Calendar Suppresses Exactly Three Intercalations In Four Hundred Years, So That After Four Hundred Years The Dominical Letters Must Again Return In The Same Order.
Hence The Following Table Of Dominical Letters For Four Hundred Years Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Year In The Gregorian Calendar For Ever.
It continued in use till the Gregorian reformation.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
It Has Already Been Mentioned That The Error Of The Julian Year Was Corrected In The Gregorian Calendar By The Suppression Of Three Intercalations In 400 Years.
From 1582 To 1700 The Difference Between The Old And New Style Continued To Be Ten Days; But 1700 Being A Leap Year In The Julian Calendar, And A Common Year In The Gregorian, The Difference Of The Styles During The 18Th Century Was Eleven Days.
In The Gregorian Calendar This Error Is Assumed To Amount To One Day In 3121 Years Or Eight Days In 2500 Years, An Assumption Which Requires The Line Of Epacts To Be Changed Seven Times Successively At The End Of Each Period Of 300 Years, And Once At The End Of 400 Years; And, From The Manner In Which The Epacts Were Disposed At The Reformation, It Was Found Most Correct To Suppose One Of The Periods Of 2500 Years To Terminate With The Year 1800.
When The Epact Of The Year Is Known, The Days On Which The New Moons Occur Throughout The Whole Year Are Shown By Table Iv., Which Is Called The Gregorian Calendar Of Epacts.
We Will Now Show In What Manner This Whole Apparatus Of Methods And Tables May Be Dispensed With, And The Gregorian Calendar Reduced To A Few Simple Formulae Of Easy Computation.
We Have Therefore S= (C 16) (C 16) 4 With Regard To The Lunar Equation M, We Have Already Stated That In The Gregorian Calendar The Epacts Are Increased By Unity At The End Of Every Period Of 300 Years Seven Times Successively, And Then The Increase Takes Place Once At The End Of 400 Years.
The Gregorian Calendar Was Introduced Into Spain, Portugal And Part Of Italy The Same Day As At Rome.
In The Protestant States Of Germany The Julian Calendar Was Adhered To Till The Year 1700, When It Was Decreed By The Diet Of Regensburg That The New Style And The Gregorian Correction Of The Intercalation Should Be Adopted.
The Difference Of The Two Styles, Which Then Amounted To Eleven Days, Was Removed By Ordering The Day Following The 2Nd Of September Of The Year 1752 To Be Accounted The 14Th Of That Month; And In Order To Preserve Uniformity In Future, The Gregorian Rule Of Intercalation Respecting The Secular Years Was Adopted.
In Those Years In Which The Line Of Epacts Is Changed In The Gregorian Calendar, The Golden Numbers Are Removed To Different Days, And Of Course A New Table Is Required Whenever The Solar Or Lunar Equation Occurs.
- Among the changes made during the Revolution was the substitution of a new calendar, usually called the revolutionary or republican calendar, for the prevailing Gregorian system.
In 1795, and not in 1796, the leap year in the Gregorian calendar.
His first important contribution to scientific knowledge was the comparison of the merits of the Cassegrainian and Gregorian telescopes, from which (Phil.
This inferiority of the Gregorian he explained as being probably due to the mutual interference of the rays as they crossed at the principal focus before reflection at the second mirror.
On the railways and in post offices the Gregorian calendar is employed; elsewhere the Julian remains in use.
This rite is found in the Gelasian, Gregorian and other sacramentaries.
From the fact that upon the Galassi vase (unearthed at Cervetri, but probably aï¿½product of Caere), which is now in the Gregorian Museum of the Vatican, a syllabary is found along with one of the most archaic Greek alphabets, and that a similar combination was found upon the wall of a tomb at Colle, near Siena, it has been argued that syllabic preceded alphabetic writing in Italy.
All Short's telescopes were of the Gregorian form, and some of them retain even to the present day their original high polish and sharp definition.
The following are the various forms of reflecting telescopes: The Gregorian telescope is represented in fig.
- Gregorian Telescope.
The practical difficulty of constructing Gregorian telescopes of good defining quality is very considerable, because if spherical mirrors are employed their aberrations tend to increase each other, and it is extremely difficult to give a true elliptic figure to the necessarily deep concavity of the small speculum.