It was the great work of Descartes to exclude rigorously from science all explanations which were not scientifically verifiable; and the prevalence of materialism at certain epochs, as in the enlightenment of the 18th century and in the German philosophy of the middle, 9th, were occasioned by special need to vindicate the scientific position, in the former case against the Church, in the latter case against the pseudo-science of the Hegelian dialectic. The chief definite periods of materialism are the pre-Socratic and the post-Aristotelian in Greece, the 18th century in France, and in Germany the, 9th century from about 1850 to 1880.
The most famous adytum in Greece was in the temple of Apollo at Delphi.
In his foreign policy Pericles differs from those statesmen of previous generations who sought above all the welfare of Greece as a whole.
For modern views of Alexander see Thirlwall, History of Greece; Niebuhr, Lectures on Ancient History (Eng.
I read the histories of Greece, Rome and the United States.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
It was the Iliad that made Greece my paradise.
They had not learned the nobler dialects of Greece and Rome, but the very materials on which they were written were waste paper to them, and they prized instead a cheap contemporary literature.
Rev. by author, 1852); Grote, History of Greece; Droysen, Histoire de l'Hellenisme (translation by Bouche-Leclerq); Ad.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
Favoured by its proximity to two great waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to the slight resources of its narrow territory.
In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
Greece, ancient Greece, exercised a mysterious fascination over me.
Many of the colonists, however, were not Ionians, but refugees from other parts of Greece, between Euboea and Argolis (Hdt.
The range of Mount Geraneia extends across the country from east to west, forming a barrier between continental Greece and the Peloponnesus.
TRACHIS, a city of ancient Greece, situated at the head of the Malian Gulf in a small plain between the rivers Asopus and Melas, and enclosed by the mountain wall of Oeta which here extended close to the sea and by means of the Trachinian Cliffs completely commanded the main road from Thessaly.
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, iii.
See ATHENS: History; GREECE: Ancient History; and GREEK ART.
He had hardly restored Macedonian prestige in this quarter when he heard that Greece was aflame.
Bury, History of Greece (1902); A.
Why all the cities of Greece dispute the honour of being his birthplace is because the Iliad and the Odyssey are not the work of one, but of many popular poets, and a true creation of the Greek people which is in every city of Greece.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
At the same time Athens embarked on several wars in Greece Proper.
Pericles may now have hoped to resume his aggressive policy in Greece Proper, but the events of the following years completely disillusioned him.
A bribe, and hastened to reconquer Euboea; but the other land possessions could not be recovered, and in a thirty years' truce which was arranged in 445 Athens definitely renounced her predominance in Greece Proper.
After 445 Athens was hardly in a position to summon such a congress, and would not have sent to envoys out of 20 to northern and central Greece, where she had just lost all her influence; nor is it likely that the building of the Parthenon (begun not later than 447) was entered on before the congress.
After Cimon's death he renounced the war against Persia, and the collapse of 447-445 had the effect of completing his change ' The general impression in Greece was that this decree was the proximate cause of the war.
Duruy, History of Greece (Eng.
Of Greece (Eng.
Greece might now be trusted to lie quiet for some time to come.
Memnon the Rhodian, now in supreme command of the Persian fleet, saw the European coasts exposed and set out to raise Greece, where discontent always smouldered in Alexander's rear.
Holm, History of Greece (Eng.
On the S., Albanian territory was curtailed owing to the acquisition of the Arta district by Greece (May 1881), the river Arta now forming the frontier.
The Albanians in Greece and Italy, though separated for six centuries from the parent stock, have not yet been absorbed by the surrounding populations.
See also Murray's Greece, ed.
But Sulla in Greece and Fimbria in Asia defeated his armies in several battles; the Greek cities were disgusted by his severity, and in 84 he concluded peace, abandoning all his conquests, surrendering his fleet and paying a fine of 2000 talents.
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
AEGINA (Egina or Engia), an island of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 20 M.
Though this statement is probably to be rejected, it may be regarded as certain that Aegina was the first state of European Greece to coin money.
Not later than the earlier half of the 7th century B.C. In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod.
In this respect the history of Aegina does but anticipate the history of Greece as a whole.
- Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome.
In 1826-1828 the town became for a time the capital of Greece and the centre of a large commercial population (about Io,000), which has dwindled to about 4300.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
The Albanians in Greece, whose settlements extend over Attica, Boeotia, the district of ï¿½ Corinth and the Argolid peninsula, as well as southern Euboea and the islands of Hydra, Spetzae, Poros and Salamis, descend from Tosk immigrants in the 14th century.
All the Albanians in Greece belong to the Orthodox Church.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
Leake, Travels in Northern Greece (London, 18 35); J.
The museum was the first institution of its kind in Greece, but the collection was transferred to Athens in 1834.
Besides the sections on Ionians in the general histories of Greece and the references given in G.
Of Greece (Eng.
Of Greece, vols.
He sent large armies into European Greece, and his generals occupied Athens.
Such apparently slight causes destroyed Greece and Rome, and will destroy England and America.
At first, joining to Cimon's antiPersian ambitions and Themistocles' schemes of Western expansion a new policy of aggression on the mainland, he endeavoured to push forward Athenian power in every direction, and engaged himself alike in Greece Proper, in the Levant and in Sicily.