Rutherfurd introduced into common use the reflection grating, finding that speculum metal was less trying than glass to the diamond point, upon the permanence of which so much depends.
He has also shown how to rule a plane surface with lines so disposed that the grating shall of itself give well-focused spectra.
This is the ordinary formula for a reflecting plane grating, and it shows that the spectra are formed in the usual directions.
There is also some uncertainty as to the actual temperature of the grating when in use.
In spite of the many improvements introduced by Rowland and of the care with which his observations were made, recent workers have come to the conclusion that .errors of unexpected amount have crept into his measurements of wave-lengths, and there is even a disposition to discard the grating altogether for fundamental work in favour of the so-called " interference methods," as developed by A.
The earliest is that of Quincke, who coated a glass grating with a chemical silver deposit, subsequently thickened with copper in an electrolytic bath.
It was formerly the custom in our village, when a poor debtor came out of jail, for his acquaintances to salute him, looking through their fingers, which were crossed to represent the grating of a jail window, "How do ye do?"
The grating iron door made him jump.
To eliminate the light returned from the hinder surface of an engraved grating, he covered it with a black varnish.
The light stopped by the opaque parts of the grating, together with that distributed in the central image and lateral spectra, ought to make up the brightness that would be found in the central image, were all the apertures transparent.
Let us suppose that the light is incident perpendicularly, and that the grating interval increases from the centre towards that edge which lies nearest to the spectrum under observation, and decreases towards the hinder edge.
V sin ?i, where a is the grating-interval and 43, the obliquity, the closeness of the grouping increasing with the number of intervals.
If x and y be co-ordinates in the plane of the wave-surface, the axis of y being parallel to the lines of the grating, and the origin corresponding to the centre of the beam, we may take as an approximate equation to the wave-surface -- -} z =+Bxy 2, +ax 3 13x2 2pp p y+-yxy2-?-Sy3+..
A disturbance limited to an infinitely thin slice of the medium, is supposed to fall upon a parallel grating, which again may With the best thickness so that in this case w=0 w = (2 w w= 0 be regarded as formed of infinitely thin wires, or infinitely narrow lines traced upon glass.
If we compare the spectrum produced by refraction in a glass prism with that of a diffraction grating, we find not only that the order of colours is reversed, but also that the same colours do not occupy corresponding lengths on the two spectra, the blue and violet being much more extended in the refraction spectrum.
If the sodium is only gently heated, so as to produce a comparatively rarefied vapour, and a grating spectroscope employed, the spectrum obtained is like that shown in fig.
One of these, of width equal, say, to one-tenth of an inch, is inserted in front of the object-glass, and the telescope, carefully focused all the while, is drawn gradually back from the grating until the lines are no longer seen.
In the case of a reflection grating the same method applies.
From (5) we see that, when the light falls perpendicularly upon a grating (0=o), there is no spectrum formed (the image corresponding to m=o not being counted as a spectrum), if the grating interval a or (a+d) is less than X.
Then the relative retardation of the extreme rays (corresponding to the edges A, B of the grating) is mnX.
It is evident that the waves from both halves of the grating are accelerated in an increasing degree, as we pass from the centre outFIG.
16) represent the surface of the grating, 0 being the centre of the FIG.
The grating at A and the eye-piece at 0 are rigidly attached to a bar AO, whose ends rest on carriages, moving on rails OQ, AQ at right angles to each other.
Mag., 1887) that the angular measurements present less difficulty than the comparison of the grating interval with the standard metre.
The grating would in any case retain its utility for the reference of new lines to standards otherwise fixed.
The metallic plate thus produced formed, when stripped from its support, a reflection grating reproducing many of the characteristics of the original.
The use of a grating is very convenient, for not only are there several spectra in view at the same time, but the dispersion can be varied continuously by sloping the grating.
In larger plant the upper ends of the sluices are often cut in rock or lined with stone blocks, the grating stopping the larger stones being known as a " grizzly."
And upwards in area, which are placed somewhat below the main sluice, and communicate with it above and below, the entry being protected by a grating so that only the finer material is admitted.
Cesareo; this is a marble altar richly decorated with mosaic in sculptured panels, and (below) two angels drawing back a curtain (all in marble) so as to expose the open grating of the confessio.
" it Polity was thought that in future it would be more consonant with the imperial dignity for the sovereign to remain concealed behind a grating where, unseen, he could hear all that was said.
In the Thies process, used in many districts in the United States, the vats are rotating barrels made, in the later forms, of iron lined with lead, and provided with a filter formed of a finely perforated leaden grating running from one end of the barrel to the other, and rigidly held in place by wooden frames.
Observing through a telescope with light perpendicularly incident, he showed that the position of any ray was dependent only upon the grating interval, viz.
In different gratings the lengths of the spectra and their distances from the axis were inversely proportional to the grating interval, while with a given grating the distances of the various spectra from the axis were as i, 2, 3, &c. To Fraunhofer we owe the first accurate measurements of wave-lengths, and the method of separating the overlapping spectra by a prism dispersing in the perpendicular direction.
The directions of the lateral spectra are such that the passage from one element of the grating to the corresponding point of the next implies a retardation of an integral number of wave-lengths.
If the grating be composed of alternate transparent and opaque parts, the question may be treated by means of the general integrals (§ 3) by merely limiting the integration to the transparent parts of the aperture.
The lateral (spectral) images occur in such directions that the projection of the element (a+d) of the grating upon them is an exact multiple of X.
The effect of each of the elements of the grating is then the same; and, unless this vanishes on account of a particular adjustment of the ratio a: d, the resultant amplitude becomes comparatively very great.
We conclude that, with a grating composed of transparent and opaque parts, the utmost light obtainable in any one spectrum is in the first, and there amounts to I/wr 2, or about 6, and that for this purpose W a and d must be equal.
In an engraved glass grating there is no opaque material present by which light could be absorbed, and the effect depends upon a difference of retardation in passing the alternate parts.
If it were possible to introduce at every part of the aperture of the grating an arbitrary retardation, all the light might be concentrated in any desired spectrum.
Michelson's ingenious echelon grating constitutes a realization in an unexpected manner of what was thought to be impracticable.