They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.
In many of the granules, or more properly, clouds represented.
Chromatin is contained in the central part together with granules known as volutin, the function of which is unknown.
These end-organs are the active agents in taking up foreign granules, or bacteria, which may have found their way into the fluid of the body-cavity.
When spoken to the diaphragm vibrated, and thus set the carbon granules into vigorous vibration.
The chief difficulty with this transmitter, and with various others of later date based upon it, has been the frequent packing of the carbon granules, which renders the instrument inoperative.
The motions impressed upon the carbon granules are very vigorous, and this together with the particular arrangement of the parts of the instrument is effectual in obviating the difficulty from packing which attended the use of earlier forms of granulated carbon transmitters.
Such small granules have been observed in the sensitive cells, and there is an evident correlation between these and the power of receiving the geotropic stimulus.
Evidence is not wanting, however, that the cytoplasm must be regarded as, fundamentally, a semifluid, homogeneous substance in which by its own activity, granules, vacuoles, fibrils, &c., can be formed as secondary structures.
The coloring matters are not dissolved in the stroma of the chrornoplast, but exist as amorphous granules, with or without the presence of a protein crystal, or in the form of fine crystalline needles, frequently curved and sometimes present in large numbers, which are grouped together in various ways in bundles and give the plastids their fusiform or triangular crystalline shape.
Substances contained in the Protoplastn.Starch may be found in the chlorophyll bodies in the form of minute granules as the first visible product of the assimilation of carbon dioxide, and it occurs in large quantities as a reserve food material in the cells of various parts of plants.
Aleurone.Aleurone is a proteid substance which occurs in seeds especially those containing oil, in the form of minute granules or large grains.
Vol ut-in occurs in the cytoplasm of various Fungi, Bacteria, Cyanophyceae, diatoms, &c., in the form of minute granules which have a characteristic reaction towards methylene blue (Meyer).
The Structure of the Nucleus.In the living condition the resting nucleus appears to consist of a homogeneous ground substance containing a large number of small chromatin granules and one or more large spherical granulesnucleolithe whole being surrounded by a limiting membrane which separates it from the cytoplasm.
To allow of this interpretation being placed upon them, and many of them are probably nothing more than granules of the fragmented nucleolus.
In the Cyanophyceae the contents of the cell are differentiated into a central colorless region, and a peripheral layer containing the chlorophyll and other coloring matters together with granules of a reserve substance called cyanophycin.
The chromatin is distributed throughout the cytoplasm in the form of granules which may be regarded as a distributed nucleus corresponding to what Hertwig has designated, in protozoa, chromidia.
In the yeast cell the nucleus is represented by a homogenous granule, probably of a nucleolar nature, surrounded and perhaps to some extent impregnated by chromatin and closely connected with a vacuole which often has chromatin at its periphery, and contains one or more volutin granules which appear to consist of nucleic acid in combination with an unknown base.
The coelom is lined throughout by cells, which upon the intestine become large and loaded with excretory granules, and are known as chloragogen cells.
By analogy, acinus is applied in anatomy to similar granules or glands, or lobules of a gland.
Within the cytoplasm are found manifestations of functional activity, in the form of digestive vacuoles, granules, fat, glycogen, pigment, and foreign bodies.
Fatty degeneration is a retrogressive change associated with the deposit of fatty granules or globules in the cytoplasm, and is caused by disorganized cellular activity (figs.
This pigment is usually intracellular, but may be found lying free in the intercellular substance, and is generally in the form of fine granules of a yellowish-brown or brown-black colour.
These soluble salts combine with the albumins in the body, and are deposited as minute granules of silver albuminate in the connective tissue of the skin papillae, serous membranes, the intima of arteries and the kidney.
The shell is thick, and operculate in some forms; thin, and provided with filaments, in others; in the latter cases it may contain only a few yolk-granules suspended in an albumen-like substance.
Acrochordus javanicus has no enlarged ventral shields; the flat, viperish-looking head is covered with small granules, with the eyes and nostrils well on the upper surface.
In length; the body is depressed,, covered above with minute granules and tubercles; a distinct fold of skin extends from the axilla to the groin, reminding of the similar fold of some Anguidae, to which this singular genus seems to be allied.
In many forms deep-staining grains or granules, of a chromatoid nature and of var y ing size, are to be seen in the cytoplasm.
Most cases these granules are, if not confined to, chiefly distributed in the posterior (flagellate) half of the body (figs.
The spherical granules (G) are probably gland-secretions; the dark bodies (Z) are probably xanthellae, i.e.
The study of the nucleus of yeast-cells is rendered difficult by the presence of other deeply staining granules termed by Guillermond naetachromatic granules.
Slag or Cinder, a characteristic component of wrought iron, which usually contains from 0.20 to 2.00% of it, is essentially a silicate of iron (ferrous silicate), and is present in wrought iron simply because this product is made by welding together pasty granules of iron in a molten bath of such slag, without ever melting the resultant mass or otherwise giving the envelopes of slag thus imprisoned a chance to escape completely.
It is known as mesophyll, and is formed of two distinct series of cells, each containing the green chlorophyll-granules, but differing in form and arrangement.
He thinks it may possibly originate in the vacuolization of the central region, and the accumulation of chromatin granules therein.
With reference to the existence of a chromatophore, he with others finds the colouring matter localized in granules in the peripheral region, but does not consider these individually or in the aggregate as chromatophores.
When carbon-assimilation is active, starch-granules crowd upon the surface of the pyrenoid and completely obscure it from view.
Other granules, easily mistaken for the " starch " granules, are also found in the cells of Phaeophyceae; these possess a power of movement apart from the protoplasm, and are considered to be vesicles and to contain phloroglucin.
The colourless granules of Florideae, which are supposed to constitute the carbohydrate reserve material, have been called floridean-starch.
The formation is very uniform in its character, the gneiss having a red colour and containing small granules of magnetite, but, nevertheless, not a single iron mine belongs to this region.
Oil and fat drops have also been shown to occur, and in the sulphur-bacteria numerous fine granules of sulphur.
Attention has accordingly been directed to the deeply-staining granules mentioned above, and the term chromatin-granules has been applied to them, and they have been considered to represent a rudimentary nucleus.
That these granules consist of a material similar to the chromatin of the nucleus of higher forms is very doubtful, and the comparison with the nucleus of more highly organized cells rests on a very slender basis.
The process begins with the formation of brilliant granules (A, B); these increase, and the brilliant substance gradually balls together (C) and forms the spores (D), one in each segment, which soon acquire a membrane and ripen (E).
The outermost layer of endosperm, the aleuron-layer, consists of regular cells filled with small proteid granules; the rest is made up of large polygonal cells containing numerous starch-grains in a matrix of proteid which may be continuous (horny endosperm) or granular (mealy endosperm).
In the neighbourhood surrounding the penumbra the granules appear to be packed more closely, forming brilliant patches called faculae.
81), granules, points or crested reticulations.
The supposed Micrococci present little that is characteristic; the more definite, rod-like form of the Bacilli offers a better means of recognition, though far from an infallible one; in a few cases dark granules, suggestive of endospores, have been found within the rods.
Silver resembles them closely, but differs by the circumstance that it is deposited permanently in minute granules in the tissues, and, without affecting the general health, stains the skin of a bluish colour (argyria).
The disks and granules constitute a very powerful microphone.