Railway legislation first assumed importance in connection with the " Granger Movement " in the middle west.
This preferential and discriminating policy, combined with other causes which cannot here be discussed, resulted in 'the Granger legislation of.
Western commissions, the offspring of the Granger movement, were of a more vigorous type.
In 1826 in Genesee county the disappearance of a printer named William Morgan was attributed to Free-Masons and aroused a strong antipathy to that order; and the anti-Masonic movement, through the fostering care of Weed, Francis Granger (1792-1868) and others, spread to other states and led eventually to the establishment of a political organization that by uniting various anti-Jacksonian elements, polled in the New York state election of 1832 more than 156,000 votes for Francis Granger, their candidate for governor against Marcy, who was chosen by about 10,000 plurality.
From 1837 to 1841 he was vicepresident of the United States, to which position he was elected over Francis Granger, by the Senate, none of the four candidates for the vice-presidency having received a majority of the electoral votes.
Economic depression gave the Granger Movement considerable popularity, and an outgrowth of the Granger organization was the Independent Reform Party, of 1874, which advocated retrenchment of expenses, the state regulation of railways and a tariff for revenue only.
Badger as secretary of the navy, Francis Granger as postmaster-general, and John J.
Other radical legislation, especially in regard to railways, has included: the Porter Law, regulating rates, which was enacted in 1874 during the "Granger Movement," was modified from time to time, and was displaced by a law of 1905 (in 1908 declared constitutional so long as stockholders receive a "reasonable compensation" on investments) creating a state railway commission, and providing for the physical valuation of railways on an ad valorem basis for taxation; a law (1907) making 2 cents a mile the maximum fare; an antitipping law (1905); a law forbidding the sale of cigarettes; an act (1907) forbidding insurance companies to do both participating and non-participating business; and an eight-hour labour law in effect on the 1st of January 1908.