The principal orders, arranged according to their numerical importance, are as follows: - Leguminosae,Rubiaceae, Orchidaceae, Compositae, Gramineae, Euphorbiaceae, Acanthaceae, Cyperaceae and Labiatae.
Compositae are comparatively rare; so also Gramineae and Cyperaceae are in some places deficient, and Labiatae, Leguminosae and ferns in others.
24 a Cryptogams, besides Gramineae and Cyperaceae.
O150s swelling), a cereal (Avena sativa) belonging to the tribe Avenece of the order Gramineae or grasses.
As the Gobi desert is approached the forests disappear, the ground becomes covered chiefly with dry Gramineae, and Salsolaceae make their appearance.
The Gramineae offer a prominent example of a dominant self-pollinated or wind :pollinated family, and this may find explanation in a multiplicity of factors.
It is based upon the fact that the histological differentiation of the epidermis of their root is that generally characteristic of Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons - the old view of the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted.
On the drier and higher mountains of the interior of the chain, the forests become more open, and are spread less uniformly over the hill-sides, a luxuriant herbaceous vegetation appears, and the number of shrubby Leguminosae, such as Desmodium and Indigofera, increases, as well as Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Umbelliferae, Labiatae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae and other European genera.
GRASSES,' a group of plants possessing certain characters in common and constituting a family (Gramineae) of the class Monocotyledons.
Yet the first attempts at a classification of plants recognized and separated a group of Gramina, and this, though bounded by nothing more definite than habit and general appearance, contained the Gramineae of modern botanists.
(Both enlarged.) among Glumiflorae (the series to which belong the two families Gramineae and Cyperaceae), and is almost always present, certain Oryzeae and Phalarideae being the only exceptions.
Bracts of a more general character subtending branches C' of the inflorescence are singularly rare in Gramineae, in marked contrast with Cyperaceae, where they are so conspicuous.
This character is absolute for the whole order, and effectually separates Gramineae from Cyperaceae.
- Gramineae are sharply defined from all other plants, and there are no genera as to which it is possible to feel a doubt whether they should be referred to it or not.
Best distinctions are found in the position of the embryo in relation to the endosperm - lateral in grasses, basal in Cyperaceae - and in the possession by Gramineae of the 2-nerved palea below each flower.
In number of species Gramineae comes considerably after Compositae and FIG.
Leguminosae, the two most numerous orders of phanerogams, but in number of individual plants it probably far exceeds either; whilst from the wide extension of many of its species, the proportion of Gramineae to other orders in the various floras of the world is much higher than its number of species would lead one to expect.
In tropical regions, where Leguminosae is the leading order, grasses closely follow as the second, whilst in the warm and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, in which Compositae takes the lead, Gramineae again occupies the second position.
Besides the above-named there are many other Gramineae, such as Lasiagrostis splendens, the whole seas of Scabiosae.
Of these, the orders most largely represented (together with their species) are: Leguminosae, 34 6; Filices, 318; Compositae, 281; Euphorbiaceae, 228; Orchideae, 170; Cyperaceae, 160; Rubiaceae, 1 47; Acanthaceae, 131; Gramineae, 130.
Sometimes, however, as in Gramineae, the stigma of a single carpel divides.