Great confusion prevailed in the first years of American dominion owing to the diversities of languages and the grafting of such Anglo-Saxon institutions as the jury upon the older system.
These "psychically decadent" individuals appear to represent the entire male sex of a bisexual species, and become unnecessary owing to the grafting of hermaphroditism on the female sex.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
The dwarf and pyramid trees, more usually planted in gardens, are obtained by grafting on the quince stock, the Portugal quince being the best; but this stock, from its surface-rooting habit, is most suitable for soils of a cold damp nature.
Skin-grafting and regeneration of bone are among not the least remarkable applications of pathological principles to the combat with disease in recent times; and in this connexion may also be mentioned the daring acts of surgery for the relief of tumours of the brain, rendered practicable by improved methods of localization, as well as operations upon the serous cavities for diseased conditions within them or in their vicinity.
It is propagated by seeds, and occasionally by budding, grafting or inarching for the perpetuation of special varieties.
From 1858 to 1863 there were many importations of American vines for grafting purposes to Bordeaux, Roquemaure and other parts of France, England, Ireland, Germany, Portugal, &c. It is practically certain that the deadly phylloxera was imported on these plants.
Grafting or " working " consists in the transfer of a branch, the " graft " or " scion," from one plant to another, which latter is termed the " stock."
The object of grafting is to expedite and increase the formation of flowers and fruit.
Double grafting (French, greffe sur greffe) is sufficiently explained by its name.
Partial starvation will sometimes effect this; hence the grafting of freegrowing fruit trees upon dwarfing stocks, as before alluded to, and also the " ringing " or girdling of fruit trees, i.e.
- Grafting is so extensively resorted to that it is impossible here to notice all its phases.
The scions should be taken off some weeks before they are wanted, and half-buried in the earth, since the stock at the time of grafting should in point of vegetation be somewhat in advance of the graft.
The best season for grafting apples and similar hardy subjects in the open air is in March and April; but it may be commenced as soon as the sap in the stock is fairly in motion.
Various kinds of grafting wax are now obtainable, and are a great improvement upon the clay process.
- Whip-grafting or Tongue-grafting.
This is not so good a plan as whip-grafting; it is improved by sloping the stock on one side to the size of the graft.
Side-grafting is performed like whip-grafting, the graft being inserted on the side of a branch and not at the cut end of the stock.
For the propagation by grafts of stove and greenhouse plants the process adopted is whip-grafting or a modification of it.
Raffia - which has taken the place of bast - is generally used for tying, and grafting wax is only used occasionally with such plants under glass.
All grafting of this kind is done in the propagating house, at any season when grafts are obtainable in a fit state - the plants when operated on being placed in close frames warmed to a suitable temperature.
- Root-grafting FIG.
- Root-grafting of of Dahlia.
The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better.
Begin grafting in the third week; dig and dress between the rows of gooseberries, currants and other fruit trees, if not already done.
Propagate rare and fine plants by cuttings or grafting; increase bouvardias by cuttings, and grow on for winter flowering.
Baltet, The Art of Grafting and Budding; W.
The hawthorn serves as a stock for grafting other trees.
The Kabyles understand grafting, have fine orchards and grow vines.
It may be propagated by suckers and layers, by grafting and by sowing.
On the other hand, the replanting of some of the French vineyards (after the ravages due to the phylloxera) with American vines, or, as was more generally the case, the grafting of the old French stock on the hardy American roots, resulted, after a time, in many cases, in the production of wines practically indistinguishable from those formerly made.
This, of course, naturally leads to the production of a wine somewhat different in character to that produced before the epidemic, but this difficulty may be overcome to some extent, as it was in the Bordeaux vineyards, by grafting ancient stock on the roots of new and resistant vines.
In 1852 he produced "Girls Sewing," "Man Spreading Manure"; 1853, "The Reapers"; 1854, "Church at Greville"; 1855 - the year of the International Exhibition, at which he received a medal of second class - "Peasant Grafting a Tree"; 1857, "The Gleaners"; 1859, "The Angelus," "The Woodcutter and Death"; 1860, "Sheep Shearing"; 1861, "Woman Shearing Sheep," "Woman Feeding Child"; 1862, "Potato Planters," "Winter and the Crows"; 1863, "Man with Hoe," "Woman Carding"; 1864, "Shepherds and Flock, Peasants Bringing Home a Calf Born in the Fields"; 1869, "Knitting Lesson"; 1870, "Buttermaking"; 1871, "November - recollection of Gruchy."
Maule also tried the effect of grafting the potato on these two species and, though he succeeded, there is no record to show whether the product was any hardier than the parents.
1876, p. 304) succeeded in grafting the potato on the tomato, and Messrs Sutton have carried out similar experiments on an extensive scale (Journ.
Both these pests have been successfully combated, largely by the use of sulphur and by grafting immune American vines upon native stocks.
The easiest to cultivate, and experiments have consequently been made in cross-fertilization and grafting with the view of giving vigour of growth to delicate trees yielding a large amount of alkaloid or of increasing the yield in strong-growing trees affording but little quinine.
Grafting, however, has not been found to answer the purpose, since the stock and the graft have been found to retain their respective alkaloids in the natural proportion just as if growing separately.
Root-grafting is sometimes resorted to where extensive increase is an object, or where stem-grafting or other means of propagation are not available.