In rare cases during the Middle Kingdom (inscriptions in the tomb of Ameni at Beth Hasan, graffiti in the quarries of Hanub) documents were dated in the years of reign of these feudatory nobles.
The script also recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar material was also used.
Ancient graffiti abound in all this district, and on Bigeh, a larger island adjoining Philae, there was a temple as early as the reign of Tethmosis III.
Graffiti of pilgrims to the shrine of Isis are dated as late as the end of the 5th century A.D.
Sayce has found graffiti concerning him, and prescriptions exist for consulting Besas in dreams. It has been held that Bes was of non-Egyptian origin, African, as Wiedemann, or Arabian or even Babylonian, as W.
14, ro); still., it is certain that the Roman cemeteries were visited by numerous pilgrims even in the 3rd century: for the earliest graffiti in the papal crypt of the Coemeterium Callisti must date from this period (De Rossi, Roma sotter.
Are mostly graffiti, scratched on the rocks by visitors or worshippers at the holy places; CIS.
(2) The royal coffins and wrappings, which give information by the added graffiti recording their removals; (3) Royal tablets, which are of the highest value for history, as they often describe or imply historical events; (~.) Private tombs and tablets, which are in many cases biographical.
It can be traced in the graffiti of the mercenaries of Psammetichus at Abu Simbel in Upper Egypt, where Greeks, Carians and Phoenicians all cut their names upon the legs of the colossal statues.
Amongst the kings of the XIIIth Dynasty (including perhaps the XIVth), not a few are represented by granite statues of colossal size and fine workmanship, especially at Thebes and Tanis, some by architectural fragments, some by graffiti on the rocks about the First Cataract.
Still more curious, and almost peculiar to Pompeii, are the numerous writings painted upon the walls, which have generally a semipublic character, such as recommendations of candidates for municipal offices, advertisements, &c., and the scratched inscriptions (graffiti), which are generally the mere expression of individual impulse and feeling, frequently amatory, and not uncommonly conveyed in rude and imperfect verses.
On the other hand, the good condition of many of the painted Oscan inscriptions at the times when they were first uncovered (1797 onwards) and their subsequent decay and the number of Oscan graffiti appear to make it probable that at the Christian era Oscan was still spoken in the town.
A further development can be traced in the graffiti with which pilgrims adorned the rocks of Mount Sinai down to the 2nd or 3rd century A.D.