He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
Heerwesen (1885), and Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Kurze Ubersicht der Feldziege A.
Graf Von Mansfeld Ernst >>
And Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
Scholars are now almost unanimously agreed that the internal features are best explained by the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.
The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis (§ 4) does not pretend to be complete in all its details and it is independent of its application to the historical criticism of the Old Testament.
Friedrich Leopold, Graf Stolberg >>
Graf, Essai sur la vie et les ecrits (1842); G.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
Graf, Die Griindung Alessandrias: ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Lombardenbundes (1888).
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
At the head of the pagus was the comes, corresponding to the German Graf (Gaugraf, cf.
It is the more curious that the gerefa should end as a servant ("reeve"), the Graf as a noble (count).
A relic of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania, where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is styled count (comes, Graf) of the Saxon Nation.
In Russia the title of count (graf, fern.
Sternfeld, Karl von Anjou als Graf von Provence (Berlin, 1888); Charles's connexion with north Italy is dealt with in Merkel's La Dominazione di Carlo d'Angio in Piemonte e in Lombardia (Turin, 1891), while the R.
KARL HEINRICH GRAF (1815-1869), German Old Testament scholar and orientalist, was born at Miilhausen in Alsace on the 28th of February 1815.
Graf was one of the chief founders of Old Testament criticism.
The reasons urged against the contention that the priestly legislation and the Elohistic narratives were separated by a space of 500 years were so strong as to induce Graf, in an essay, "Die sogenannte Grundschrift des Pentateuchs," published shortly before his death, to regard the whole Grundschrift as post-exilic and as the latest portion of the Pentateuch.
Reuss, but since Graf was the first to introduce it into Germany, the theory, as developed by Julius Wellhausen, has been called the GrafWellhausen hypothesis.
Graf also wrote, Der Segen Moses Deut.
Graf von Spee.
Semon, Im Australischen Busch and an den Kasten des Korallen Meeres (Leipzig, 1899); Nachrichten fiber Kaiser Wilhelmsland (Berlin, 1887-1899); Joachim Graf von Pfeil, Studien and Beobachtungen aus der Siidsee (Brunswick, 1899); M.
(On the occasion of the congress of Rastadt, 1798); Der Minister Graf von Montgelas (1814); Geschichte der Jesuiten in Bayern (1819); and Bayerns Gauen (Nuremberg, 1830).
For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
Other important works in which English and American scholars have co-operated are the Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903) and Hastings' Bible Dictionary (1898-1904) - the latter less radical, but yet on the whole based on acceptance of the fundamental positions of Vatke, Graf, Wellhausen.
Graf, Roma nella memoria e nella imaginazione del medio evo, i.
Meanwhile the successful sale of Matthew's Bible, the private venture of the two printers Graf ton and Whitchurch, was threat.
See Graf L.
Utterodt zu Scharffenberg, Giinther, Graf von Schwarzburg, erwdhlter deutscher Konig (Leipzig, 1862); and K.
Graf and J.
Immense labour has been spent in the critical analysis of the contents, but it is only since the work of Graf (1866) and Wellhausen (1878) that a satisfactory literary hypothesis has been found which explained 1 It is interesting to find that the Spanish Rabbi Isaac"(of Toledo, A.D.
The Graf-Wellhausen literary theory has gained the assent of almost all trained and unbiased biblical scholars, it has not been shaken by the more recent light from external evidence, and no alternative theory has as yet been produced.
The internal features of Genesis demand some formulated theory, more precise than the indefinite concessions of the 17th century, beyond which the opponents of modern literary criticism scarcely advance, and the Graf-Wellhausen theory, in spite of the numerous difficulties which it leaves untouched, is the only adequate starting-point for the study of the book.
The conclusion that P's narratives and laws in the Pentateuch are post-exilic was found by biblical scholars to be a necessary correction to the original hypothesis of Graf (1866) that P's narratives were to be retained (with J and E) at an early date.
The upper chamber (Standesherren) is composed of adult princes of the blood, heads of noble families from the rank of count (Graf) upwards, representatives of territories (Standesherrschaften), which possessed votes in the old German imperial diet or in the local diet; it has also members (not more than 6) nominated by the king, 8 members of knightly rank, 6 ecclesiastical dignitaries, a representative of the university of Tubingen, and of the technical high school of Stuttgart, 2 representatives of commerce and industry, 2 of agriculture, and i of handicrafts.
Penzler, Graf Billows Reden nebst urkundlichen Beitrcigen zu seiner Politik (Leipzig, 1903).
' There is, as Graf (Gesch.
Graf von Beust, Aus drei-viertel Jahrhunderten (2 vols., 1887); Flathe, in Allg.
See Life of Szechenyi, by Zsigmond Kemeny (Hung.; Pest, 1870); Aurel Kecskemethy, The Last Years and Death of Count Szechenyi (Hung.; Pest, 1866); Menyhert Lonyai, Count Szechenyi and his Posthumous Writings (Hung.; Budapest, 1875); Max Falk, "Der Graf Stephen Szechenyi and seine Zeit" (in the Oesterreichische Revue, Vienna, 1867); Antal Zichy, Count Szechenyi as a Pedagogue (Hung.; Budapest, 1876); Pal Gyulai, Szechenyi as a Writer (Hung.; Budapest, 1892); Antal Zichy, Biographical Sketch of Count Stephen Szechenyi (Hung.; 2 vols., Budapest, 1896-1897).
Graf (Jeremia, p. 558 f.), Robertson Smith and others, that Jeremiah and our book of Obadiah alike quote from an older oracle.