The meaning of this singular contrast between the two animals may be that we have here an instance of an interesting gradation in evolution.
The physical properties of the alcohols exhibit a gradation with the increase of molecular weight.
He prepares the way, too, for a doctrine of evolution by his monistic idea of the substantial similarity of all things, inorganic and organic, bodily and spiritual, and still more by his conception of a perfect gradation of existence from the lowest " inanimate " objects, whose essential activity is confused representation, up to the highest organized beingman - with his clear intelligence.'
Without assignment to a particular charge), the translation of clerics except for good cause, the enrolment of a cleric in two churches at once, and the performance of sacerdotal functions outside of one's diocese without letters of commendation from one's bishop; (5) confirming the jurisdiction of bishops over all clerics, regular and secular alike, and punishing with deposition any conspiracy against episcopal authority; (6) establishing a gradation of ecclesiastical tribunals, viz.
From this there is a more or less nearly complete gradation on the one hand to palecoloured forms like the white-footed fox (V.
He does not accept the universal voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but believes in individual wills, and a gradation of wills, in the organic world.
They are soft and lustrous, with a peculiarly smooth feel, and though often confounded with mica-schists may be distinguished by their richness in magnesia; many of them contain tremolite or actinolite; others have residual grains of olivine or augite; and here also every gradation can be found between the unmodified igneous types and the perfectly metamorphic schists.
Actually not even in the most regular of feudal countries, like England or Germany, was there any fixed gradation of rank, titles or size.
They occupy, in fact, an intermediate stage of de gradation between the comparatively well-to-do tribes in the tributary states (the stronghold and home of the race), and the Pans, Bauris, Kandras and other semi-aboriginal peoples on the lowlands, who rank as the basest castes of the Hindu community.
Although the more typical goats are markedly distinct from sheep, there is, both as regards wild and domesticated forms, an almost complete gradation from goats to sheep, so that it is exceedingly difficult to define either group. The position of the genus Capra (to all the members of which, as well as some allied species, the name "goat" in its wider sense is applicable) in the family Bovidae is indicated in the article Bovidae, and some of the distinctions between goats and sheep are mentioned in the article Sheep. Here then it will suffice to mention that goats are characterized by the strong and offensive odour of the males, which are furnished with a beard on the chin; while as a general rule glands are present between the middle toes of the fore feet only.
Between these two extremes is every conceivable gradation, embracing aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect or climbing in habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater variety than is to be found in the other subdivision of seed-plants, the Gymnosperms.
The fact which ordinary thought ignores, and of which ordinary logic therefore provides no account, is the presence of gradation and continuity in the world.
A continuous gradation can be traced from the most widely separated visual binaries, whose periods are many thousand years, to spectroscopic binaries, Algol and # Lyrae variables, whose periods are a few hours and whose components may even be in contact, and from these to dumb-bell shaped stars and finally to ordinary single stars.
Although it is true that there is a certain amount of gradation in the degree of development to which these organs have attained in the various orders, yet it is hardly sufficient to enable the imagination to bridge over the gap which separates Amphioxus from the lowest fishes in regard to this feature of organization.
That this is so appears even more clearly when we examine his general conception of the unity, gradation and function of the sciences.
And above all things the young and the ignorant are to be instructed, the former by a regular gradation or ladder of parish or elementary schools, secondary schools and universities.
The sparrow weighs 339 times less than the Australian crane, and possesses 7 times more surface, &c. If now we compare the insects and the birds, the gradation will become even much more striking.
The thecae uniserial (monoprionidian) - t here is a gradation from earlier groups with many branches to later groups with only two; and from species in which all the branches and' their thecae are directed downwards, through species in which the branches become bent back more and more outwards and upwards, until in some the terminal thecae open almost vertically.
1 Considerations philosophiques sur la gradation naturelle des formes de l'etre; ou les essais de la nature qui apprend d faire l'homme (1768).
The accurate investigation of the lowest forms of animal life, commenced by Leeuwenhoek and Swammerdam, and continued by the remarkable labours of Reaumur, Abraham Trembley, Bonnet, and a host of other observers in the latter part of the 17th and the first half of the 18th centuries, drew the attention of biologists to the gradation in the complexity of organization which is presented by living beings, and culminated in the doctrine of the echelle des titres, so powerfully and clearly stated by Bonnet, and, before him, adumbrated by Locke and by Leibnitz.
3 In some cases a piece of land is only an island at high water, and by imperceptible gradation the form passes into a peninsula.
The species of Linnaeus were supposed to represent a series of steps in a scale of ascending complexity, and it was thought possible thus to arrange the animal kingdom in a single series - the orders within the classes succeeding one another in regular gradation, and the classes succeeding one another in a similar rectilinear progression.
We find a division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefold gradation of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen - eorls, ceorls, laets), and not of the twofold Frankish one (ingenui Franci, Romani), nor of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards.
On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
Again, "the gradation of the incident is this: the father has become powerless among the coils of the serpent; the younger son has still strength for resistance but is wounded; the elder has a prospect of escape."
The secondary septa show a regular gradation in size, and, assuming that the smallest were the most recently formed, it will be noticed that in the chief quadrants the youngest septa lie nearest to the main septum; in the other quadrants the youngest septa lie nearest to the alar septa.
The country possesses every gradation of temperature, from that of the tropical lowlands to the Arctic cold of the snow-capped peaks directly above.
The title of Knight Harbinger was taken from an office no longer existing in the Royal Household, and a regular gradation was instituted for the honorific titles and decorations assigned to members.