In the colonial era Maryland had an interesting list of governmental subdivisions - the manor, the hundred, the parish, the county, and the city - but the two last are about all that remain and even these are in considerable measure subject to the special local acts of the General Assembly.
Scarcely had these amendments been carried when the serious financial straits brought on by debt incurred through the state's promotion of internal improvements gave rise to the demand for a reduction of governmental expenses and a limitation of the power of the General Assembly to contract debts.
1 He is less absolute in his doctrine of governmental non-interference when he comes to consider in his fifth book the "expenses of the sovereign or the commonwealth."
The province is divided into the three governmental departments (Regierungsbezirke) of Minden, Munster and Arnsberg.
It included the present governmental department of Minden, but by far the larger part of the kingdom lay outside and chiefly to the east of the modern province, and comprised the Hanoverian department of Hildesheim and in part that of Arensberg, Brunswick, the northern part of the province of Saxony as far as the Elbe, Halle, and most of Hesse-Cassel.
A description of the state governments, one feature must be noticed which is common both to the states and to the Federation, and gives to the governmental system of both a peculiar character, different from that of the government of Great Britain.
A peculiarly notable form of this special or private bill legislation is that of dealing by special statutes with the governmental forms and details of management of municipalities; and the control exercised by the state legislatures over city governments is not only a most important branch of legislative business, but at the same time a means of power to scheming politicians and of enrichment to greedy ones.
The revenues of the several states, and of minor governmental areas within them, are mainly derived from a general property tax, laid directly upon realty and personalty.
No success met the apparently well-meaning efforts of the Central Japanese League which was organized in November and December 1903 to promote the observance of law and order by the Japanese in the islands, who assumed a too independent attitude and felt themselves free from governmental control whether Japanese or American; indeed, after the League had been in operation for a year or more, it almost seemed that it contributed to industrial disorders among the Japanese.
Both by its attitude and by its governmental acts, the papacy of the later 13th century itself contributed to increase the discredit and disaffection from which it suffered.
From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate governmental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority.
It was, moreover, the first document of the sort in which a first-class power recognized that the rights of the Church are based upon " divine institution and canon law," not upon governmental concession.
And is the largest in Prussia, is divided into three governmental districts, those of Liegnitz and Breslau comprising lower Silesia, and of Oppeln taking in the greater part of mountainous Silesia.
The Penns lost their governmental rights in 1776, and three years later their territorial interests were vested in the commonwealth in return for a grant of £120,000 and the guarantee of titles to private estates held in severalty.
The university, indeed, was definitively established at Bonn, but the archbishopric was restored (1821) as part of the new ecclesiastical organization of Prussia, and the city became the seat of the president of a governmental district.
STATE RIGHTS, a term used generally in political science to denote those governmental rights which belong to the individual states of a federal union, there being a certain sphere of authority in which these individual states may act without interference from the central government.
One of these is the so-called governmental theory, wherein the death of Christ is set forth as for the sake of good government, so that the forgiveness of sins shall not be thought a sign of laxity.
Riigen, with the neighbouring islands, forms a governmental department, with a population (1905) of 47,023.
The early Finlanders do not seem to have had any governmental organization, but to have lived in separate communities and villages independent of each other.
He never faced the question how a man is to be induced to act morally in cases where these governmental sanctions could be evaded or did not exist in the particular state in which a man chanced to find himself.
On the southeastern slope are governmental and military summer quarters.
Since 1898 the governmental changes previously referred to, the location of a new trans-continental railway terminus on the bay, and the new outlook to the Orient, created by the control of the Philippines by the United States, and increased trade in the Pacific and with the Orient, have stimulated the growth and ambitions of the city.
Four of his books were of particular importance: Christian Nurture (1847), in which he virtually opposed revivalism and "effectively turned the current of Christian thought toward the young"; Nature and the Supernatural (1858), in which he discussed miracles and endeavoured to "lift the natural into the supernatural" by emphasizing the supernaturalness of man; The Vicarious Sacrifice (1866), in which he contended for what has come to be known as the "moral view" of the atonement in distinction from the "governmental" and the "penal" or "satisfaction" theories; and God in Christ (1849) (with an introductory "Dissertation on Language as related to Thought"), in which he expressed, it was charged, heretical views as to the Trinity, holding, among other things, that the Godhead is "instrumentally three - three simply as related to our finite apprehension, and the communication of God's incommunicable nature."
This is a governmental unit organized from an unincorporated township having at least 200 inhabitants,' and its principal officers are the moderator, clerk, three assessors, treasurer, collector, constable and school committee.
Cape Porpoise to Casco, and in issuing which the Council for New England had granted governmental as well as territorial rights.
The female secondary schools in 1881-1882 numbered 77, of which 7 were government institutions, with 3569 pupils; in 1901f 902 there were 233 schools (9 governmental) with 9347 pupils.
2 Provisionally, then, the Russian governmental system may perhaps be best defined - as M.
This governmental sanction has been obtainable only with difficulty, and after the exercise of numerous legal forms, in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe.
While governmental colonization studded Siberia with forts, free colonization filled up the intermediate spaces.
At the governmental institutions, Professors Oppert and Halevy helped further to train him.
BISCHOFSWERDA, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, on the Wesenitz, and at the junction of the DresdenGorlitz and Bischofswerda-Zittau railways in the governmental district of Bautzen.
He was under the general influence of the mercantilist views, and approved of energetic governmental interference in industrial matters, of high taxes on foreign manufactures and low duties on raw materials and articles of food, and attached great importance to a dense population.
3 Grotius put forward what has been called the Governmental Theory, viz.
At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.
Superstition, misunderstanding and hatred caused the Christians trouble for many generations, and governmental repression they had to suffer occasionally, as a result of popular disturbances.
In 1871 he was appointed president of the governmental district of Gumbinnen in East Prussia, in 1875 district president (Bezirksprdsident) in Lorraine, and in 1877 Oberprdsident in Silesia.
The principal buildings are the palace of the prince of Reuss-Greiz, surrounded by a fine park, the old château on a rocky hill overlooking the town, the summer palace with a fine garden, the old town church dating from 1225 and possessing a beautiful tower, the town hall, the governmental buildings and statues of the emperor William I.
To grant a charter conveying almost unlimited territorial and governmental rights therein to George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore (1580?-1632), and styling him its absolute lord and proprietor.
A â€œPersonâ€ is a natural person, a corporation, proprietorship, partnership, governmental entity, or any other legal person or entity.
It was necessary for the future development of England that its governmental system should be centralized and unified, that the authority of the monarchy should be more firmly extended over Wales and the western and northern borders, and that the still existing feudal franchises should be crushed; and these objects were worth the price paid in the methods of the Star Chamber and of the Councils of the North and of Wales.
If it be possible,"he said," to be certainly conscious of anything, I am conscious of feeling no difference between writing to the highest and lowest being on earth."Jefferson's first administration was marked by a reduction of the army, navy, diplomatic establishment and, to the uttermost, of governmental expenses; some reduction of the civil service, accompanied by a large shifting of offices to Republicans; and, above all, by the Louisiana Purchase, following which Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Jefferson, con 1 See also Jefferson to E.
At the same time governmental plantations were established in the Nilgiri hills and at Darjeeling, and these have been continued up to the present time.
Lastly, a regular post service was instituted from Damascus to the provincial capitals, especially destined for governmental despatches.
In the primary schools boys learn arithmetic, and geography and Korean history are taught, with the outlines of the governmental systems of other civilized countries.
Furthermore, the governmental machinery would be less complex than in the older towns.
The Roman Catholic and Greek divisions of the Christian Church are homogeneous in organization, but in Protestantism certain denominations are national, established by differing governments, and others are independent of governmental aid, making a large number of differing denominations.
54 55 Protestant churches this situation cannot arise, as they make no claims to governmental sovereignty.
ACRE, ` Akka, or ST Jean D'Acre, the chief town of a governmental district of Palestine which includes Haifa, Nazareth and Tiberias.
Before this act and the elections of August 1906 Alaska was a governmental district of the United States without a delegate in Congress.
So that while the king was governmental head of the whole of North Carolina from 1729 to 1776 he was, after 1744, territorial lord of only the southern half.
But, imperfect as such statistics may be, they give us at any rate some insight into the direction of governmental legislation.
The German Liberals and the governmental Socialists had withdrawn their support from Bethmann Hollweg's Government at the time of the so-called " Peace Resolution " (July 19 1917), largely on the ground that it was inconceivable that the Allies and America should ever negotiate with politicians like Zimmermann and Bethmann, who had been guilty of the note to Mexico and other treacherous proceedings.
AZOTUS, the name given by Greek and Roman writers to Ashdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now represented by a few remains in the little village of `Esdud, in the governmental district of Acre.
This provision, introducing an entirely new principle into the American governmental system, came into effect in January 1903, and was employed in the following year when a previously elected councilman who was "recalled" by petition and was unsuccessful in the 1904 election brought suit to hold his office, and on a mere technicality the Supreme Court of the state declared the recall election invalid.
Natives heavily predominated in agriculture and the professions, slightly in trade, and held barely more than half of all governmental positions; but in transportation, personal service, manufactures, labour and domestic service, the predominance of the foreign element warranted the assertion of the state Bureau of Statistics of Labour that " the strong industrial condition of Massachusetts has been secured and is held not by the labour of what is called the 'native stock,' but by that of the immigrants."
C. Morey, The Government of New York: Its History and Administration (New York, 1902) after tracing briefly the development of the governmental system describes its structure and operation.
Throughout the World War he belonged to the Governmental section of the Socialists, and voted in the Reichstag for the war credits.
The province is divided into the governmental departments of Danzig and Marienwerder.
When Federal Civil Service commissioner he did more than any other single public man in the United States has had either the ability or the opportunity to do; to promote the doctrine of service for merit only out of the realm of theory into the realm of governmental practice.
The following table shows the area and population of the whole kingdom and of each of the five chief governmental districts, or Kreishauptmannschaften, into which it is divided The chief towns are Dresden (pop. 1905, 514,283), Leipzig (502,570), Chemnitz (244,405),(244,405), Plauen (105,182), Zwickau (68,225), Zittau (34, 6 79), Meissen (32,175),(32,175), Freiberg (30,869), Bautzen (29,372), Meerane (24,994), Glauchau (24,556), Reichenbach (24,911),(24,911), Crimmitzschau (23,340), Werdau (19,476), Pirna (19,200).
The coal is found principally in two fields - one near Zwickau, and the other in the governmental district of Dresden.
For administrative purposes Saxony is divided into five Kreishauptmannschaf ten, or governmental departments, subdivided into twenty-seven Amtshauptmannschaften.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
The French found Moscow abandoned but with all the organizations of regular life, with diverse branches of commerce and craftsmanship, with luxury, and governmental and religious institutions.