The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
Havet's contention (in La Modernite des prophetes) that Gog represents the Parthians (40 B.C.) has little or nothing in its support.
The following chapters (xxxiv.- xxxix.) are devoted to reconstruction: Edom, the detested enemy of Israel, is to be crushed; the nation, politically raised from the dead, with North and South united (xxxvii.), is to be established under a Davidide king; a final assault, made by Gog, is to be successfully met, 4 and then the people are to dwell in their own land in peace for ever; this Gog section is regarded by some as the beginning of Jewish apocalyptic writing.
15 it is distinctly said that Gog is to come from the recesses of Saphon.
Andrew's report to his sovereign, whom he rejoined in 1251 at Caesarea in Palestine, appears to have been a mixture of history and fable; the latter affects his narrative of the Mongols' rise to greatness, and the struggles of their leader, evidently Jenghiz Khan, with Prester John; it is still more evident in the position assigned to the Tatar homeland, close to the prison of Gog and Magog.
8, and in Ezekiel's prophecy concerning Gog and Magog, where the wonders of fire and blood named in Joel ii.
In view of the other points of 1 It has been suggested that Saphon, which is often rather troublesome if rendered "the north," may be a weakened form of .ib'on, a affinity between Joel and Ezekiel, this word inevitably suggests Gog and Magog, and it is difficult to see how a swarm of locusts could receive such a name, or if they came from the north could perish; as the verse puts it, in the desert between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
- Release of Satan and final assault on the city of God by the hosts of Gog and Magog at the instance of Satan.
Have Gog, which would imply a post-exilic date, cf.
Probably both Agag and Gog are textual corruptions.
Musa into Asia Minor to find out all about the Seven Sleepers which he discovered in the neighbourhood of Arabissus,' and Sallam the Interpreter to explore the situation of the famous wall of Gog and Magog, which he reached at the north-west frontier of China.
De Goeje, "De muur van Gog en Magog," Versl.