The enzymes which act upon glucosides are many; the best known are emul sin and myrosin, which split up respectively amygdalin, the special glucoside of certain plants of the Rosaceae; and sinfgrin, which has a wide distribution among those of the Cruciferae.
The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.
Sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
Rhamnose or isodulcite, a component of certain glucosides, fucose, found combined in seaweeds and chinovose, present as its ethyl ester, chinovite, in varieties of quina-bark, are methyl pentoses.
The relation of the disaccharoses to the aand l3-glucosides was established by E.
Soc., 1903, 85, 1305), who showed that cane sugar and maltose were a-glucosides, and raffinose an a-glucoside of melibiose.
The chief constituents of jalap resin are two glucosides - convol- vulin.
Gay-Lussac. It is present in varying amounts in certain plants, being a product of the hydrolysis of the cyanogenetic glucosides, e.g.
Digitalis contains four important glucosides, of which three are cardiac stimulants.
Some appear to be glucosides of gallic acid, since they yield this acid and a sugar on hydrolysis, e.g.
Amongst the latter, the vegetable poisons of known constitution, alkaloids, glucosides, &c., are to be placed.
Some of these, such as resins, gums, essential oils and fats, are readily obtained as natural exudations or by very simple manipulations, while others, such as the alkaloids, glucosides and vegetable acids, often require to be extracted by very complex processes.