It is a poor and crowded district, and a large industrial population is employed in the riverside wharves and in potteries, glassworks and other manufactures.
The arts and crafts associated with furniture work, paper-making and coach-building may also be specified, whilst tanneries, glassworks, india-rubber and vulcanite factories, brass-founding, machinery works, the making of biscuits, tea-bread and confectionery are all prominent.
Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
Before 1825, when the excise duty was introduced into Ireland, there were flourishing glassworks in Belfast, Cork, Dublin and Waterford.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
Brick, porcelain and glassworks employ large numbers of the inhabitants.
Among other industrial establishments are a large porcelain and earthenware factory, extensive fireclay works, glassworks and a chinapainting establishment; there are also numerous flax-spinneries and linen-factories in the neighbourhood.
The establishments include slaughtering and meat-packing houses, whose product is by far the most valuable in the city, bleacheries, finishing factories, glassworks, machine shops, tube works, jewelry factories, and a desk factory.
Portuguese cabinet-work deteriorated in the 19th century; the glassworks and potteries of the Aveiro and Leiria districts have lost much of their ancient reputation; and even the exquisite lace of Peniche and Vianna do Castello is strangely neglected abroad.
In 1797 glassworks which were the first to use coal as a fuel in making glass were built here; later Pittsburg profited greatly by the use of its great store of natural gas in the manufacture of glass.