With him, as with his father, the politics of the Marches had been the main consideration; his final change of side was due to jealousy of the younger Despenser, whose lordship of Glamorgan was too great for the comfort of the Bohuns in Brecon.
The Glamorgan county council has also a site of one acre in the park for offices.
In 1798 the first dock (12 acres in extent) was constructed at the terminus of the Glamorgan canal from Merthyr.
The Bute trustees in 1885 acquired the Glamorgan canal and its dock, and in the following year obtained an act for vesting their various docks and the canal in a company now known as the Cardiff Railway Company.
In this period of anarchy the native princes of Glamorgan had their principal demesne, not at the camp but a mile to the north at Llystalybont, now merely a thatched farmhouse, while some Saxon invaders threw up within the camp a large moated mound on which the Normans about the beginning of the 12th century built the great shellkeep which is practically all that remains of their original castle.
On the conquest of the district by the Normans under Fitz Hamon, Cardiff became the caput of the seigniory of Glamorgan, and the castle the residence of its lords.
In 1284 the inhabitants petitioned the burgesses of Hereford for a certified copy of the customs of the latter town, and these furnished a model for the later demands of the growing community at Cardiff from its lords, while Cardiff in turn furnished the model for the Glamorgan towns such as Neath and Kenfig.
Its inhabitants, though nominally subject to the lords of Glamorgan since Fitzhamon's conquest, enjoyed a large measure of independence and often raided the lowlands.
According to tradition Iestynap-Gwrgan, the last prince of Glamorgan, had a residence somewhere near the present town, but Fitzhamon, on his conquest of Glamorgan, gave the district between the Neath and the Tawe to Richard de Granaville (ancestor of the Granvilles, marquesses of Bath), who built on the west banks of the Neath first a castle and then in 112 9 a Cistercian abbey, to whose monks he later gave all his possessions in the district.
Another castle, built in the same century, on the east bank, was held direct by the lords of Glamorgan, as the westernmost outpost of their lordship. It was frequently attacked by the Welsh, notably in 1231 when it was taken, and the town demolished by Llewelyn ab Iorwerth.
Other charters were granted to it by successive lords of Glamorgan in 1290, 1340, 1 359, 1 397, 1421 and 1423.
The Vale of Glamorgan railway (which is worked by the Barry company and has a junction with the Great Western railway at Bridgend) affords a direct route to Barry from the Llynvi, Ogmore and Garw coalfields.
For a while he worked at the ironworks, Neath Abbey, Glamorgan, and then set.
Situated on a slightly elevated headland facing Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channel, it has fine sands, rocks and breezy commons, on one of which, near golf links resorted to from all parts of Glamorgan, is "The Rest," a convalescent home for the working classes, completed in 1891, with accommodation for eighty persons.
The town derives its name from the river Avon (corrupted from Avan), which also gave its name to a medieval lordship. On the Norman conquest at Glamorgan, Caradoc, the eldest son of the defeated prince, Lestyn ab Gwrgan, continued to hold this lordship, and for the defence of the passage of the river built here a castle whose foundations are still traceable in a field near the churchyard.
By Glamorgan and W.
The Central Wales section of the London & North-Western railway from Craven Arms to Swansea crosses the north-west corner of the county, and is intersected at Builth Road by a branch of the Cambrian, which, running for the most part on the Radnorshire side of the Wye, follows that river from Rhayader to Three Cocks; the Midland railway from Hereford to Swansea runs through the centre of the county, effecting junctions at Three Cocks with the Cambrian, at Talyllyn with the Brecon & Merthyr railway (which connects the county with the industrial areas of East Glamorgan and West Monmouthshire), and at Capel Colbren with the Neath and Brecon line.
Had in the transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan for bringing over a body of Irish rebels (London, 1756); Historical view of Negotiations between the Courts of England, France and Brussels 1592-1617 (London, 1749); Life of Archbishop Tillotson (London, 1753); Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth from 1581 (London, 1754); History of the Royal Society of London (London, 1756-1757); Life of Henry, Prince of Wales (London, 1760), and many other works.
(from the Point of Air in Flint to Barry Island on the Glamorgan coast) is 136 m., while its breadth varies from 92 m.
Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.
Copper, tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly.
By far the larger portion of Wales is purely agricultural in character, and much of the valley land is particularly fertile, notably the Vale of Glamorgan, the Vale of Clwyd and the valleys of the Towy, the Teifi, the Usk and the Wye, which have long been celebrated for their rich pastures.
The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon & Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire.
The diocese of St Davids (Tyddewi), the largest, oldest and poorest of the four Cambrian sees, consists of the counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, almost the whole of Brecon, the greater part of Radnor, and west Glamorgan with Swansea and Gower.
The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a bishop with the title of Menevia.
The Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys Fon) and the Snowdonian district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the Silures, occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth.
Through the modern county of Glamorgan by way of Leucarum (Loughor) and Nidum (Neath) to Venta Silurum.
To this period succeeding the fall of the Roman power is also ascribed the foundation of the many great Celtic monasteries, of which Bangor-Iscoed on the Dee, Bardsey Island, Llancarvan and Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan, Caerleon-on-Usk.
Glamorgan and the county palatine of Pembroke had hitherto been the only portions of the country subject to English shire law, but now Edward parcelled out the ancient territory of the princes of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth into six new counties, with sheriffs, coroners and bailiffs.
At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.
Nor is the question of the vernacular itself of necessity bound up with this new movement, for Wales is essentially a bi-lingual country, wherein every educated Cymro speaks and writes English with ease, and where also large towns and whole districts - such as Cardiff, south Monmouth, the Vale of Glamorgan, Gower, south Glamorgan, south Pembroke, east Flint, Radnorshire and Breconshire - remain practically monoglot English-speaking.
The nuncio's most pliant helper was now Edward Somerset, earl of Glamorgan, afterwards marquess of Worcester, who had been sent to Ireland by Charles I., and who had entered into communication with Rinuccini when the latter first arrived in that country.
Glamorgan bound himself to carry out all the wishes of the nuncio, who intended that he should supplant Ormonde.
In all their negotiations with Ormonde and Glamorgan, Henrietta Maria and the earl of Bristol, the pope and Rinuccini stood out for an arrangement which would have destroyed the royal supremacy and established Romanism in Ireland, leaving to the Anglicans bare toleration, and to the Presbyterians not even that.
The Glamorgan canal has also a branch (made in 1811) running from Abercynon to Aberdare.
It is lowest, naturally, in the mining districts, as Glamorgan, Monmouth, Durham, Northumberland; but an exception may be noted in the case of Cornwall, where a high proportion of females is attributed to the emigration of miners consequent upon the relative decrease in importance of the tin-mines.
This coal-field occupies practically the whole of Glamorgan and part of Monmouth, and its surface slopes from the Black Mountain and Brecon Beacons to the sea as a gently inclined plateau, scored by deep valleys draining south.
From 1535 to 1832 (with the exception of 1658-1659) Swansea was associated with the other boroughs of Glamorgan in sending one representative to Parliament.
The assizes and quarter sessions for Glamorgan are held at Swansea alternately with Cardiff.
Glamorgan, Cardigan and Radnor, after a slight outbreak of the same nature four years previously.
Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22%, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7%; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom.
Just outside the town at Angelton and Parc Gwyllt are the Glamorgan county lunatic asylums.