In 1870, by an arrangement which he attributed to his friend Robert Lowe, afterwards Lord Sherbrooke (at that time a member of Gladstone's ministry), Scott was promoted to the deanery of Rochester and Jowett was elected to the vacant mastership by the fellows of Balliol.
The first year of office passed off successfully, and it was owing to the steady support of the prime minister that Gladstone's great budget of 1853 was accepted by the cabinet.
In Mr Gladstone's 1886 ministry he was secretary for war, and filled the same office in the Liberal ministry of 1892-1895.
Gladstone's government and a member of the Privy Council.
In 1877 he was appointed by Lord Beaconsfield ambassador at Constantinople, where he remained until Gladstone's return to power in 1880, when he finally retired from public life.
Lord Halifax (1800-1885) used to say, with reference to the increase in the amount of reading requisite for the highest honours: " My double-first must have been a better thing than Peel's; Gladstone's must have been better than mine."
His son, Lord Lincoln, had heard Gladstone's speech against the Reform Bill delivered in the Oxford Union, and had written home that " a man had uprisen in Israel."
On the first night of the debate Lord Howick, afterwards Lord Grey, who had been undersecretary for the Colonies, and who opposed the resolutions as proceeding too gradually towards abolition, cited certain occurrences on Sir John Gladstone's plantation in Demerara to illustrate his contention that the system of slave-labour in the West Indies was attended by great mortality among the slaves.
The year 1838 claims special note in a record of Gladstone's life, because it witnessed the appearance of his famous work on The State in its Relations with the Church.
An inevitable change is from this time to be traced in the topics of Gladstone's parliamentary speaking.
In reply to a question in the House of Commons, Lord Palmerston accepted and adopted Gladstone's statement, expressed keen sympathy with the cause which he had espoused, and sent a copy of his letter to the queen's representative at every court of Europe.
In the session of 1870 Gladstone's principal work was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his own industry had made.
In spite of Gladstone's skilful appeal to the constituencies to sanction the principle of Home Rule, as distinct from the practical provisions of his late bill, the general election resulted in a majority of considerably over loo against his policy, and Lord Salisbury resumed office.
The crowning struggle of Gladstone's political career was now approaching its climax.
Gladstone's political work was now, in his own judgment, ended.
Since his retirement from office Gladstone's physical vigour, up to that time unequalled, had shown signs of impairment.
The body was buried in the north transept of the abbey, where, on the 19th of June 1900, Mrs Gladstone's body was laid beside it.
After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis.
In 1875 he published a reply to Gladstone's attack on the Vatican decrees; and on the 15th of March in that year he was created cardinal, with the title of SS.
The queen was privately opposed to Gladstone's Home Rule policy; but she observed in public a constitutional reticence on the subject.
In 1870 he gave a qualified support to Gladstone's first Irish Land Act, and in the same year he supported Forster's Education Act.
In the introductory letter he criticized Gladstone's pronouncement on the subject, and especially examined the allegation of a general tendency towards disestablishment in the civilized world at large, and arrived at a negative conclusion.
But Lord Selborne did not carry on his opposition to Gladstone's proposals only in his library or by his pen; in the year1886-1887he travelled to many parts of the country, and addressed meetings in defence of the union between the Church and state and against Home Rule; and in September 1893, in his eighty-first year, he addressed a powerful speech to the House of Lords in opposition to the Home Rule Bill.
The four acts of 1842, 1846, 1853, 1860 - the first two In under Peel's leadership, the second two under Gladstone's guidance - thus carried out gradually the policy of free trade in regard to other articles than grain.
After Mr Gladstone's brief Home Rule Ministry in 1886 he entered Lord Salisbury's next Cabinet again as Irish secretary, making way for Lord Randolph Churchill as leader of the House; but troubles with his eyesight compelled him to resign in 1887, and meanwhile Mr Goschen replaced Lord Randolph as chancellor of the exchequer.
Soret has confirmed, for the ultra-violet rays, Dr Gladstone's conclusions with regard to the identity of the absorption spectra of different chromates.
Defeated at the general election at Pontefract, he was returned as a Home Ruler (one of the few Liberals who adopted this policy before Mr Gladstone's conversion) in 1886 for South Edinburgh, and was home secretary in the ministry of 1886.
These were intended as a substitute for the paid canvassers, about to be abolished by Mr Gladstone's Reform Bill.
At the general election in 1880 he was re-elected at Birmingham, and joined Mr Gladstone's new government as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.
He, however, gave a general support to Mr Gladstone's government.
He refused to support Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill in 1885, and was one of those who chiefly contributed to its rejection, and whose reputation for unbending integrity and intellectual eminence gave solidity to the Liberal Unionist party.
In 1869 he refused Gladstone's offer of a peerage.
The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 1870 that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years.
After the receipt in December 1879 of the reports of Mr Gladstone's speeches during his Midlothian campaign - in which he denounced annexation as obtained by means dishonourable to Great Britain - the Boers expected nothing less than the retrocession of the country.
The new administration, notwithstanding Mr Gladstone's public utterances, declared their intention of retaining British sovereignty in the Transvaal, coupling with that decision a pious hope for the speedy accomplishment of confederation so as to allow of free institutions being given to Natal and the Transvaal.