In 1164 Barisone, giudice of Arborea, was given the title of king of the whole island by Frederick Barbarossa, but his supremacy was never effective.
The island had (probably since the end of the 9th century) been divided into four districts - Cagliari, Arborea, Torres (or Logudoro) and Gallura - each under a giudice or remained a prisoner at Bologna until his death.
The title of giudice was abolished and a feudal marquisate substituted.
Hampe, Geschichte Konradins von Hohenstaufen (Berlin, 1893); del Giudice, Il Giudizio e la condanna di Corradirlb (Naples, 1876); E.
(Leipzig, 1898); P. del Giudice, Studi di storia e diritto (Milan, 1889); and U.
Del Giudice, La Famiglia di re Manfredi (Naples, 1880); and H.