On account of the resemblance of the leaves to those of some species of Adiantum, the appellation maiden-hair tree has long been given to Ginkgo biloba.
In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.
In the Characeae, the Vascular Cryptogams, in Zamia and Cycas, and in Ginkgo, the spermatozoids are more or less highly modified cells witi+m.-S, ~..
In the spermatozoids of Chara, Vascular Cryptogams, and in those of Cycas, Zamia and Ginkgo, the cilia arise from a centrosome-like body which is found on one side of the nucleus of the spermatozoid mother-cell.
This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.
Amongst Conifers the archaic genera, Ginkgo and Araucarus still persist.
Ginkgo - Maidenhair Tree.
These six groups were the dominant types throughout the period, but during Upper Carboniferous time three other groups arose, the Coniferales, the Cycadophyta, and the Ginkgoales (of which Ginkgo biloba is the only modern representative).
- Ginkgo adiantoides.
- This class-designation has been recently proposed to give emphasis to the isolated position of the genus Ginkgo (Salisburia) among the Gymnosperms. Ginkgo biloba, the maidenhair tree, has usually been placed by botanists in the Taxeae in the neighbourhood of the yew (Taxes), but the proposal by Eichler in 1852 to institute a special family, the Salisburieae, indicated a recognition of the existence of special characteristics which distinguish the genus from other members of the Coniferae.
The discovery by the Japanese botanist 'Erase of the development of ciliated spermatozoids in the pollen-tube of Ginkgo, in place of the non-motile male cells of typical conifers, served as a cogent argument in favour of separating the genus from the Coniferales and placing it in a class of its own.
In 1712 Kaempfer published a drawing of a Japanese tree, which he described under the name Ginkgo; this term was adopted in 1771 by Linnaeus, who spoke of Kaempfer's plant as Ginkgo biloba.
In 1797 Smith proposed to use the name Salisburia adiantifolia in preference to the " uncouth " genus Ginkgo and " incorrect " specific term biloba.
Ginkgo is common as a sacred tree in the gardens of temples in the Far East, and often cultivated in North America and Europe.
Ginkgo biloba, which may reach a height of over 30 metres, forms a tree of pyramidal shape with a smooth grey bark.
- Ginkgo biloba.
- Ginkgo biloba.
The endosperm detached from a large Ginkgo ovule after fertilization bears a close resemblance to that of a cycad; the apex is occupied by a depression, on the floor of which two small holes mark the position of the archegonia, and the outgrowth from the megaspore apex projects from the centre as a short peg.
During the Triassic and Jurassic periods the genus Baiera - no doubt a representative of the Ginkgoales--was widely spread throughout Europe and in other regions; Ginkgo itself occurs abundantly in Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and was a common plant in the Arctic regions as elsewhere during the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous periods.
The structure of the seed, the presence of two neck-cells in the archegonia, the late development of the embryo, the partially-fused cotyledons and certain anatomical characters, are features common to Ginkgo and the cycads.
Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.
During the growth of the cell which forms the megaspore the greater part of the nucellus is absorbed, except the apical portion, which persists as a cone above the megaspore; the partial disorganization of some of the cells in the centre of the nucellar cone forms an irregular cavity, which may be compared with the larger pollen-chamber of Ginkgo and the cycads.
Ginkgoales; Hirase, " Etudes sur la fecondation, &c., de Ginkgo biloba," Journ.
(1898); Seward and Gowan, " Ginkgo biloba," Ann.
(1900) (with bibliography); Ikeno, " Contribution a l'etude de la fecondation chez le Ginkgo biloba," Ann.
(1901); Sprecher, Le Ginkgo biloba (Geneva, 1907).
In most cases the leaf-traces passed out from the stem in pairs, as in the recent Ginkgo; dividing up further as they entered the leaf-base.
The stamens are probably best compared with those of Ginkgo, but they have also been interpreted as corresponding to the male " flowers " of the Gnetaceae.
In the light of our present knowledge of Ginkgo and the Cycads, there can scarcely be a doubt that spermatozoids were formed in the cells of the antheridium of the Cordaitean pollen-grain and that of other Palaeozoic Spermophyta; the an theridium is much more developed than in any recent Gymnosperm, and it may be doubted whether any pollen-tube was formed.
The morphology of the female inflorescence of Cordaiteae has not yet been cleared up, but Taxus and Ginkgo among recent plants appear to offer the nearest analogies.
Isolated fossil seeds are common in the Carboniferous and Permian strata; in all cases they are of the orthotropous type, and resemble the seeds of Cycads or Ginkgo more nearly than those of any other living plants.
18), there are others separated as a distinct B, C, D, E, F, H, Ginkgo leaves.
Male flowers, like those of Ginkgo biloba, but usually H, after Krasser.
Size.) characterized by a rather larger number of oval pollen-sacs on the stamens, have been found in England, Germany, Siberia and elsewhere in association with Ginkgo and Baiera foliage.
Seeds like those of Ginkgo biloba have also been recorded as fossils in Jurassic rocks, and it is possible that the type of flower known as Beania, from the Inferior Oolite rocks of Yorkshire, may have been borne by Ginkgo or Baiera.
The regions from which satisfactory examples of Ginkgoales (Baiera or Ginkgo) have been recorded are shown in Map B (G1-G17).
Among modern floras we find here and there isolated types, such as Ginkgo, Sequoia, Matonia, Dipteris and the Cycads, persisting as more successful survivals which have held their own through the course of ages; these plants remain as vestiges from a remote past, and as links connecting the vegetation of to-day with that of the Mesozoic era.
Of trees now extinct in America, Eucalyptus and Ginkgo are perhaps the most noticeable.
Callitris (2 species), Sequoia, Athrotaxis (?) Ginkgo, Podocarpus, Pinus; and several genera of palms, of which the tropical Nipa is the most abundant and most characteristic, among the others being fan-palms of the genera Sabal and Chamaerops.
The plants include a Fern, Onoclea hebridica, close to a living American form; four Gymnosperms belonging to the genera Cryptomeria, Ginkgo, Taxus and Podocarpus; Dicotyledons of about 30 species, several of which have been figured.
The plants of Disco include, besides the plane and Sequoia, such warm-temperate trees as Ginkgo, oak, beech, poplar, maple, walnut, lime and magnolia.