At first held at any of the local shrines, such as Gilgal, Bethel, Shiloh, as well as Jerusalem, it was held at an indefinite date during the harvest in the fall of the year.
Of Jiljilia (Gilgal), and N.W.
"Galgal") places Gilgal 2 Roman miles from Jericho, and speaks of it as a deserted place held in wonderful veneration ("miro cultu") by the natives.
This site, which in the middle ages appears to have been lost - Gilgal being shown farther north - was in 1865 recovered by a German traveller (Hermann Zschokke), and fixed by the English survey party, though not beyond dispute.
But whether this is the Gilgal spoken of by Amos and Hosea in connexion with Bethel is by no means certain [see (3) below].
Gilgal, mentioned in Josh.
The third Gilgal (2 Kings iv.
30 seems to imply a Gilgal near Gerizim, and there is still a place called Juleijil on the plain of Makhna, 21 m.
This may have been Amos's Gilgal and was almost certainly that of r Mace.
The Gilgal described in Josh.
7 is the same as the Beth-Gilgal of Neh.
It is fed from the north by the rivers Gilgal and Morendat, but has no known outlet.
In the valley of the Gilgal and surrounding country north of Lake Naivasha.
The sons of the prophets appear to have been grouped round the leading sanctuaries, Gilgal, Bethel, and the like (cf.
Although the traditions regard their efforts as part of a common movement (from Gilgal, see below), it is more probable that these (notably Caleb) escaped the punishment which befell the rest of the Israelites, and made their way direct from Kadesh into the south of Palestine.'
This having been effected, Gilgal became the base for a series of operations in which the united tribes took part.
Amos mentions it in connexion with the shrines of Bethel and Gilgal (Amos v.
In the latter we may distinguish one circle connected with Gilgal, Jericho and the Jordan valley to which AbelMeholah belongs (iv.
Old tradition suggests the " schools of the prophets " at Jericho, Gilgal and Bethel, and in fact the proximity of these places, especially Bethel, to Judaean soil may be connected with the friendly and sometimes markedly favourable attitude to Judah in these narratives.
2, 7 seq., must be viewed as having his local manifestation at the headquarters of the host of Israel, is still found at Gilgal and not at Shiloh.