That Chesterfield was early a thriving centre is shown by the charter of John Lord Wake, lord of the manor, granting a gild merchant to the town.
In Jerusalem itself the subordinate officers of the temple were not members of a holy gild, but of the royal body-guard, or bond-slaves who had access to the sacred courts, and might even be uncircumcised foreigners (Josh.
Shiloh's priestly gild is condemned for its iniquity (I Sam.
11), or, since the latter are under the leadership of Korah, later the eponym of a gild of singers, perhaps over the more subordinate ministers who once formed a separate class.
There was a gild merchant and also a town bailiff, but the latter office was of little real significance and was soon dropped.
Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.
The Gild of the Holy Cross, founded in the 13th century for the support of poor priests and others, exercised great authority over the town for many years.
The present Christ's Hospital originally belonged to the Gild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which Edward VI.
It is said that in his earliest boyhood Andrea was, like Giotto, put to shepherding or cattle-herding; this is not likely, and can at any rate have lasted only a very short while, as his natural genius for art developed with singular precocity, and excited the attention of Francesco Squarcione, who entered him in the gild of painters before he had completed his eleventh year.
As a further tribute of national recognition the "college" or "gild" of poets and actors was granted a place of meeting in the temple of Minerva on the Aventine.
At Troyes, where the gild of St Crispin was reconstituted as late as 1820, an annual festival is celebrated in the church of St Urban.
This was still open in the imperial period, and the town, which was a municipium, possessed its own gild of sailors; but its importance gradually decreased.
The right to leave the pale is indeed granted to merchants of the first gild, to those possessed of certain educational diplomas, to veteran soldiers and to certain classes of skilled artisans.
Thick; the market church, in the Romanesque style, restored since its partial destruction by fire in 1844, and containing the town archives and a library in which are some of Luther's manuscripts; the old town hall (Rathaus), possessing many interesting antiquities; the Kaiserworth (formerly the hall of the tailors' gild and now an inn) with the statues of eight of the German emperors; and the Kaiserhaus, the oldest secular building in Germany, built by the emperor Henry III.
About 1040, containing among other relics of the cathedral an old altar supposed to be that of the idol Krodo which formerly stood on the Burgberg near Neustadt-Harzburg; the church of the former Benedictine monastery of St Mary, or Neuwerk, of the 12th century, in the Romanesque style, with wall-paintings of considerable merit; and the house of the bakers' gild now an hotel, the birthplace of Marshal Saxe.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
We can show, for example: (1) that the Statute of Apprenticeship did not stand alone; it was one of a long series of similar measures, beginning more than two centuries before, which in their turn join on to the municipal and gild regulations of the middle ages; one of an important group of statutes, more or less closely interwoven throughout their history, administered by local authorities whose functions had grown largely in connexion with this legislation and the gradual differentiation of the trades and callings to which it related.
In1180-1181they rendered account of 5 marks for erecting a gild without licence.
Among the most remarkable buildings in Venice are the scuole, or gild halls, of the various confraternities.
They had their special altar dedicated to the patron of the gild, a private buryingplace, and a room in which they held their chapter.
Giovanni Evangelista, San Marco, della Misericordia and San Rocco, on the other hand, built themselves magnificent gild halls.
But the most magnificent of these gild halls is the Scuola di San Rocco, designed by Bartolomeo Buono in 1517 and carried out by Scarpagnino and Sante Lombardo.
To secure for themselves the command of trade the leading commercial families resolved to erect themselves into a close gild, which should have in its hands the sole direction of the business concern, the exploitation of the East.
One of the chief of them was the production of 'salt from the deposits of the desert; 2 another was no doubt the manufacture of leather; the inscriptions mention also a powerful gild of workers in gold and silver (NSI.
A gild was formed at Acre - the gild of St Adrian - which, if nominally religious in its origin, soon came to represent the political opposition to Frederick, as was significantly proved by its reception of the rebellious John of Beirut as a member (1232).
The bishops did not obtain possession until the reign of John, who during the interval in 1201 gave Hartlepool a charter granting the burgesses the same privileges that the burgesses of Newcastle enjoyed; in 1230 Bishop Richard Poor granted further liberties, including a gild merchant.
King John (1201) constituted Helleston a free borough, established a gild merchant, and granted the burgesses freedom from toll and other similar dues throughout the realm, and the cognizance of all pleas within the borough except crown pleas.
Incorporated the town under the title of mayor and burgesses and granted a gild merchant with a hanse.
Granted the citizens a merchant gild and all the free customs which they had in the time of Henry I.
Certain gild services in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and the growing habit, resulting naturally from the doctrine of transubstantiation, of ascribing a supreme virtue to the act of looking on the Holy Sacrament.
In 18 3 0 there were twelve Meistersinger alive in Ulm, but in 1839 the four survivors formally made over their insignia and gild property to a modern singing society and closed the record of the Meistergesang in Germany.
The town was incorporated in 1467 by Edward IV., who granted a gild merchant and appointed that the town should be governed by a mayor and two serjeants-at-mace elected every year by the burgesses.
41 the gild of singers as a whole is called Bne Asaph, as it was apparently in the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
24, where Abiasaphthat is, the eponym of the gild of Asaphites - is made one of the three sons of Korah.
The Gild of the Holy Trinity is mentioned in 1 379, and grew rich and powerful.
In England, by the boldness of the Lancet (founded in 182 3), the tyranny of prescription, inveterate custom, and privilege abused was defied and broken down; freedom of learning was regained, and promotion thrown open to the competent, independently of family, gild and professional status.
Ath is famous for its gild of archers, whose butts are erected on the plain of the Esplanade in the centre of the town.
We find roughly 419 paragraphs devoted to criminal law and 1 The Judicia civitatis Lundoniae are a gild statute confirmed by King Ã†thelstan.
The gild brothers associated in mutual defence and support, and they had to share in the payment of fines.
In the Ripuarian Law a certain importance attaches to written deeds; the clergy are protected by a higher wer gild- 600 solidi for a priest, and 900 for a bishop; on the other hand, more space is given to the cojuratores (sworn witnesses); and we note the appearance of the judicial duel, which is not mentioned in the Salic Law.
Among others we may mention the Palazzo Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most perfect specimens of Florentine quattrocento architecture), Corsini, Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), 4c. The palace of the Arte della Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored, is the headquarters of the Dante Society.
There was perpetual rioting and anarchy, and interference in the affairs of the government by the working men, while at the same time poverty and unemployment increased owing to the timidity of capital and the disorders, until at last in 1382 a reaction set in, and order was restored by the gild companies.
These singers, who, for the most part, belonged to the artisan and trading classes of the German towns, regarded as their masters and the founders of their gild twelve poets of the Middle High German period, among whom were Wolfram von Eschenbach, Konrad von Wurzburg, Reinmar von Zweter and Frauenlob.
Each gild numbered various classes of members, ranging from beginners, or Schiller (corresponding to trade-apprentices), and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to Gesellen or journeymen), to Meister, a Meister being a poet who was not merely able to write new verses to existing melodies but had himself invented a new melody.
Like his father, he looked for support to the popular party, to the tradesmen, particularly the powerful gild of the butchers, and also to the university of Paris.
He relied more than ever on the support of the popular party, which then obtained the reforming Ordonnance Cabochienne (so called from Simon Caboche, a prominent member of the gild of the butchers).
Early meanings of the root gild or geld were expiation, penalty, sacrifice or worship, feast or banquet, and contribution or payment; it is difficult to determine which is the earliest meaning, and we are not certain whether the gildsmen were originally those who contributed to a common fund or those who worshipped or feasted together.
The Exeter gild also gave assistance when property was destroyed by fire.
The gild merchant came into existence in England soon after the Norman Conquest, as a result of the increasing importance of trade, and it may have been transplanted from Normandy.
Until clearer evidence of foreign influence is found, it may, however, be safer to regard it simply as a new application of the old gild principle, though this new application may have been stimulated by continental example.