See also Zinis Storia d Italic (4 vols., Milan, 1875); Gualterios Gil ultimi rivolgimenti italiani (4 vols., Florence, 1850) is important for the period from 1831 to 1847, and so also is L.
ST GILES (GIL, GILLES), the name given to an abbot whose festival is celebrated on the 1st of September.
Even so, he showed some boldness in exposing types of the prevailing charlatanism and follies, though his liberty of speech is far less than that of Gil Vicente.
His comedies give a truthful and interesting picture of 18th century society, especially his best comedy, the Alec rim e Mangerona, in which he treats of the fidalgo pobre, a type fixed by Gil Vicente and Francisco Manoel de Mello.
At length the consecutive efforts of the navigators employed by Prince Henry of Portugal - Gil Eannes, Diniz Diaz, Nuno Tristam, Alvaro Fernandez, Cadamosto, Usodimare and Diego Gomez - made known the coast as far as the Gambia, and by the end of the 15th century the whole region was familiar to Europeans.
Gil Maestre, in his El Anarquismo en Espana, y el especial de Barcelona (Madrid, 1897), and in his La Criminalidad en Barcelona (Barcelona, 1886).
Gil Gonzalez Davila penetrated from the Gulf of Nicoya to the western provinces and sent his lieutenant Cordova to circumnavigate the great lake.
On the other hand Portugal gave birth to no considerable dramatist from the time of Gil Vicente, in the 16th century, until that of Garrett in the 19th, and it has failed to develop a national drama.
But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and foreign authors, Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernao Lopes, in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads.
Gil Sanches, an illegitimate son of Sancho I., and we possess a cantar de amigo in Galician-Portuguese, the first literary vehicle of the whole Peninsula, which appears to be the work of Sancho himself, and addressed to his concubine, A.
Bernardim Ribeiro, Christovam Falcao, Gil Vicente, and SA de Miranda, who represent the transition between the Spanish school of the i 5th and the Italian school of the 16th century, the members of which are called Os Quinhentistas.
This transition from the presentment of traditional types to the modern play can be traced in the works of Gil Vicente, the father of the Portuguese theatre.
Velha or school of Gil Vicente.
In Santarem appeared Antonio Prestes, a magistrate who drew from his judicial experience but evinced more knowledge of folk-lore than dramatic talent, while Camoens himself was so far influenced by Gil Vicente, whose plays he had perhaps seen performed in Lisbon, that in spite of his Coimbra training he never exchanged the old forms for those of the classical comedy.
Except Camoens, all these men, though disciples of Gil Vicente, are decidedly inferior to him in dramatic invention, fecundity and power of expression, and they were generally of humble social position.
Moreover the favour of the court was withdrawn on the death of Gil Vicente, and this meant much, for there existed no educated middle class to support a national theatre.
Though we know that much has perished, the four Indexes of the 16th century give some idea of the rich repertory of the popular theatre, and of the efforts necessary to destroy it; moreover, the Spanish Index of 1559, by forbidding autos of Gil Vicente and other Portuguese authors, is interesting evidence of the extent to which they were appreciated in the neighbouring country.
Moreover, women took a share in the intellectual movement of the time, and the sisters Luisa and Angela Sigea, Joanna Vaz and Paula Vicente, daughter of Gil Vicente, constituted an informal female academy under the presidency of the Infanta D.
Though it secured the favour of the humanists and the nobility, and banished the old popular plays from both court and university soon after Gil Vicente's death, its victory was shortlived.
He modelled himself on the Roman theatre as reflected by the plays of Ariosto, and he avowedly wrote the Estrangeiros to combat the school of Gil Vicente, while in it, as in Os Vilhalpandos, the action takes place in Italy.
Silva is the legitimate representative in the 18th century of the popular theatre inaugurated by Gil Vicente, and though born in Brazil, whence he brought the modinha, he is essentially a national writer.
He chose his subjects from the national history, and began with the Auto de Gil Vicente, in which he resuscitated the founder of the theatre, and followed this up with other prose plays, among which the Alfageme de Santarem takes the palm; finally he crowned his labours by Frei Luiz de Sousa, a tragedy of fatality and pathos and one 'of the really notable pieces of the century.
He translated Gil Blas, adopting more or less seriously Voltaire's unfounded suggestion that Le Sage plagiarized from Espinel's Marcos de Obregon, and other Spanish books; the text appeared in 1783, and in 1828 was greatly modified by Evaristo Pena y Martin, whose arrangement is still widely read.
This is shown by palaeontological evidence; and some of the most successful bores, such as those at Coonamble, Moree, Gil Gil and Euroka, have pierced rocks of Triassic age, corresponding with the Ipswich Coal Measures.
Gil, a deep narrow glen), e.g.
The seven new departments are: Atlantico, taken from the northern extremity of Bolivar; Caldas, the southern part of Antioquia; Galan, the southern districts of Santander, including Charala, Socorro, Velez, and its capital San Gil; Huila, the southern part of Tolima, including the headwaters of the Magdalena and the districts about Neiva and La Plata; Narino, the southern part of Cauca extending from the eastern Cordillera to the Pacific coast; Quesada, a cluster of small, wellpopulated districts north of Bogota formerly belonging to Cundinamarca, including Zipaquira, Guatavita, Ubate and Pacho; and Tundama, the northern part of Boyaca lying on the frontier of Galan in the vicinity of its capital Santa Rosa.
Gil Gonzalez De Avila >>