Suess divides the Mediterranean basin into four physical regions, which afford probably the best means of description: (I) The western Mediterranean, from Gibraltar to Malta and Sicily, enclosed by the Apennines, the mountains of northern Africa, and of southern and south-eastern Spain (Cordillere betique).
Haldane was afterwards present at the relief of Gibraltar, but at the peace of 1783 he finally left the navy, and soon afterwards settled on his estate of Airthrey, near Stirling.
He announced a complete reorganization of the navy, which was to be grouped in four fleets, three being for home defence, based on home ports (the third being the Atlantic fleet previously based on Gibraltar), and the fourth, based on Gibraltar, to operate either in home waters or in the Mediterranean.
4 Coming to the Iberian peninsula,we must, i n default of separate works depart from our rule of not mentioning contributions to journals, for of the former there are only Colonel Irby's Ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar (8vo, 1875) and Mr A.
The meridian distance between the Straits of Gibraltar and Beirut in Syria amounts upon them to about 3000 Portolano miles, equal in lat.
This accounts for Gibraltar and Alexandria being shown as lying due east and west of each other, although there is a difference of 5° of latitude between them, a fact known long before Ptolemy.
He was an enthusiastic and most useful leader of the volunteer movement from its beginning, and a writer, composer and singer of humorous and patriotic songs, some of which, as "The Three Foot Rule" and "They never shall have Gibraltar," became well known far beyond the circle of his acquaintance.
At the beginning of 1801, a British naval force, commanded by Lord Keith, had sailed from Gibraltar, escorting an army of 18,000 men under General Abercromby.
By the 13th of June he had learnt the truth, and sailed for Gibraltar under the erroneous impression that the French admiral would return to Toulon.
Nelson, who reached Gibraltar on the very day the action off Ferrol was fought, was too far away to interfere with him.
The British force consisted of 9000 men from Cork, under Sir Arthur Wellesley - at first in chief command; 5000 from Gibraltar, under General (Sir Brent) Spencer; and io,000 under Sir John Moore coming from Sweden; Wellesley and Moore being directed towards Portugal, and Spencer to Cadiz.
Peniscola, often called the Gibraltar of Valencia, is a fortified seaport, with a lighthouse, built on a rocky headland about 220 ft.
Of Gibraltar, 1168 m.
Throughout the middle ages it was the scene of vigorous struggles between Sla y s, Byzantines, Franks, Turks and Venetians, the chief memorials of which are the ruined strongholds of Mistra near Sparta, Gerald (anc. Geronthrae) and Monemvasia, "the Gibraltar of Greece," on the east coast, and Passava near Gythium.
It is a widelydistributed species, being found throughout the northern and temperate seas of Europe, Asia and America, extending as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediterranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 50 fathoms deep, where it always feeds close to the bottom.
Its position, as has been frequently remarked, is not unlike that of Gibraltar, as the town is built along the northwestern base of a rocky promontory (1157 ft.
It is entirely terrestrial in habits, at least on Gibraltar, and goes about in droves.
Up to 1668 the entrepot for the inland settlements was a station named Gibraltar at the head of the lake, but the destruction of that station by pirates in that year transferred this valuable trade to Maracaibo.
Peterwardein, the "Gibraltar of Hungary," is believed to represent the Roman Acumincum, and received its present name from Peter the Hermit, who here in 1096 marshalled the levies of the first crusade.
Reinforcements sent out from Holland were stopped in the Straits of Gibraltar and blockaded in Cadiz.
Straits have been formed (I) by fracture across isthmuses, and such may be by longitudinal fracture as in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, or transverse fracture as in the Strait of Gibraltar or Cook Strait; (2) by erosion, e.g.
An under-current flows out from the Red Sea through the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and from the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar, raising the salinity as well as the temperature of the part of the ocean outside the gates of the respective seas.
Hence a strong surface current sets inwards through the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb and Gibraltar, while an undercurrent flows outwards, raising the temperature and salinity of the ocean for a long distance beyond the straits.
On his father's return from Gibraltar, David, who had previously been educated at the grammar school of Lichfield, was, largely by the advice of Gilbert Walmley, registrar of the ecclesiastical court, sent with his brother George to the " academy " at Edial, just opened in June or July 1736 by Samuel Johnson, the senior by seven years of David, who was then nineteen.
Io of 1895, Gibraltar; No.
Of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 m.
Rabat trades with Fez and the interior of Morocco, with the neighbouring coast towns and Gibraltar, and with Marseilles, Manchester and London, and is the greatest industrial centre in Morocco.
Somewhat similar legends are those of the island of Brazil, of Lyonnesse, the sunken land off the Cornish coast, of the lost Breton city of Is, and of Mayda or Asmaide - the French Isle Verte and Portuguese Ilha Verde or "Green Island" - which appears in many folk-tales from Gibraltar to the Hebrides, and until 1853 was marked on English charts as a rock in 44° 48' N.
"Sumter" made a successful cruise on the high seas, and before she was abandoned at Gibraltar had made seventeen prizes.
A violent current, starting from the Straits of Gibraltar, rushes eastward along the shore, and, hurled back from the headlands, is deflected to the west.
As no attempt was made to stop him in the Straits of Gibraltar, he passed them on the 16th of May, and though the rawness of his crews and his own error in wasting time in pursuit of prizes delayed his passage, he reached the mouth of the Delaware on the 8th of July unopposed.
At the close of 1779 Sir George Rodney had been appointed to command a large naval force which was to relieve Gibraltar, then closely blockaded, and send stores to Minorca.
He sailed on the 29th of December 1779 with the trade for the West Indies under his protection, captured a Spanish convoy on his way off Finisterre on the 8th of January, defeated a smaller Spanish force near Cape St Vincent on the 16th, relieved Gibraltar on the 19th, and left for the West Indies on the 13th of February.
The rambling operations of the naval war till the close of 1780 - directed by the allies to such secondary objects as the capture of West Indian islands, or of Minorca and Gibraltar, and by Great Britain to defensive movements - began to assume a degree of coherence in 1781.
They could not even prevent Admiral George Darby from relieving Gibraltar and Minorca in April.
At home Howe relieved Gibraltar for the last time in September and October 1782.
It may be that his early death, during the great plague of 1350, at the siege of Gibraltar, only averted a desperate struggle with his legitimate son, though it was a misfortune in that it removed a ruler of eminent capacity, who understood his subjects well enough not to go too far.
On the site at the junction of the two rivers where Verandreye, the first white explorer to visit the Red river, had three-quarters of a century before this time erected Fort Rouge, and where some ten years earlier in the century the Nor'-Westers of Montreal had erected Fort Gibraltar, the Hudson's Bay Company, which at the time Lord Selkirk and his friends controlled, erected Fort Douglas, bearing the family name of the colonizer.
Dr William Harris Rule (1802-1890), who was appointed chaplain at Gibraltar in 1832, won for it fuller recognition from the authorities.
In the "Venerable" Hood was present at the action of Algesiras and the battle in the Straits of Gibraltar (1801).
TANGIER (locally Tanjah), a seaport of Morocco, on the Straits of Gibraltar, about 14 m.
Tangier is almost destitute of manufactures, and while the trade, about £750,000 a year, is considerable for Morocco, it is confined chiefly to imports, about two-fifths of which come from Great Britain and Gibraltar, and one quarter from France.
The exports are chiefly oxen, meat, fowls and eggs for Gibraltar and sometimes for Spain, with occasional shipments of slippers and blankets to Egypt.
The disposition of the Spaniards to make concessions was further quickened by the destruction of their fleet at Gibraltar by the Dutch admiral Heemskerk, (April 1607).
The principal cables are from Alexandria to Malta, Gibraltar and Ergland; from Alexandria to Crete and Brindisi; from Suez f,., A.lsn ~ Ch~,-,,,, ~rn1 ~
North Africa from beyond the straits of Gibraltar to the Syrtes became again a Roman province, although the Moorish tribes of the interior maintained a species of independence; and part of southern Spain was also recovered for the empire.
After going home to Tangier, Ibn Batuta crossed into Spain and made the round of Andalusia, including Gibraltar, which had just then stood a siege from the "Roman tyrant Adfunus" (Alphonso XI.
Of Gibraltar, on the opposite side of the Bay of Algeciras.
Algeciras stands at the head of a railway from Granada, but its only means of access to Gibraltar is by water.
The Moorish city was destroyed by Alphonso; it was first reoccupied by Spanish colonists from Gibraltar in 1704; and the modern town was erected in 1760 by King Charles III.