Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X.; and in 1534 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiery, was deprived of its privileges.
Thus was elaborated the type of despot which attained completeness in Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Lorenzo de Medici.
He married his daughter Violante to our duke of Clarence, and his son Gian Galeazzo to a daughter of King John of France.
Gian Galeazzo thus became by one stroke the most formidable of Italian despots.
Gian Galeazzo, partly by force and partly by intrigue, discredited these minor despots, pushed his dominion to the very verge of Venice, and, having subjected Lombardy to his sway, proceeded to attack Tuscany.
Seven years before his death Gian Galeazzo bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at the sovereignty of Italy.
Gian Galeazzos duchy was a masterpiece of mechanical contrivance, the creation of a scheming intellect and lawless will.
Meanwhile Gian Galeazzo had left two sons, Giovanni Maria and Filippo Maria.
He subsequently spent a long, suspicious, secret and incomprehensible career in the attempt to piece together Gian Galeazzos Lombard state, and to carry out his schemes of Italian conquest.
After Galeazzo Marias assassination, his crown passed to a boy, Gian Galeazzo, who was in due course married to a grand-daughter of Ferdinand I.
As duke of Orleans he had certain claims to Milan through his grandmother Valentina, dap~hter of Gian Galeazzo, the first duke.
Gian Pietro Caraffa, who was made pope in 1555 with the name of Paul IV., endeavoured to revive the ancient papal policy of leaning upon France.
He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.
The duke Antonio Farnese acreS died ill 1731; the grand-duke Gian Gastone de Medici died in 737.
On the death of Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1402, his large possessions broke up, His neighbours and his generals seized what was nearest to hand.
Accordingly when Gian Galeazzo's widow applied to the republic for help against Carrara it was readily granted, and, after some years of fighting, the possessions of the Carraresi, Padua, Treviso, Bassano, commanding the Val Sugana route, as well as Vicenza and Verona, passed definitely under Venetian rule.
Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian scholar of the Renaissance, was born in 1380 at Terranuova, a village in the territory of Florence.
At Milan Lodovico Sforza (il Moro) ruled, nominally as regent for the youthful duke Gian Galeazzo, but really with a view to making himself master of the state.
Of France, and as the king of Naples threatened to come to the aid of Gian Galeazzo, who had married his granddaughter, he encouraged the French king in his schemes for the conquest of Naples.
1835) and Giovan Battista Vico, his first works were an article in the Biblioteca Italiana entitled "Mente di Gian Domenico Romagnosi" (1835), and a complete edition of the works of Vico, prefaced by an appreciation (1835).
In 1387 fresh quarrels with Florence on the subject of Montepulciano led to an open war, that was further aggravated by the interference in Tuscan affairs of the ambitious duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti.
Gian Galeazzo lightened their yoke.
In 1390 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, having made himself master of a large part of northern Italy, intrigued to gain possession of Pisa and Siena.
In 1397-1398 Florence had two more wars with Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who, aspiring to the conquest of Tuscany, acquired the lordship of Pisa, Siena and Perugia.
In 1413 Ladislas attacked the papal states once more, driving John from Rome, and threatened Florence; but like Henry VII., Gian Galeazzo Visconti, and other enemies of the republic, he too died most opportunely (6th of August 1414).
The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.
Its possession was disputed between Padua and Vicenza; it passed for a moment under the power of Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, who fortified it.
From that date till 1405, with the exception of two years (1388-1390) when Gian Galeazzo Visconti held the town, nine members of the Carrara family succeeded one another as lords of the city.
In the latter part of the city, on a steep elevation, stands the castle of St Peter, originally founded by Theodoric, on the site, perhaps, of the earliest citadel, mostly rebuilt by Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1393, and dismantled by the French in 180r.
In 1389 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan, became by conquest lord of Verona.
Internal disorders broke out, and Gian Antonio Orsini, prince of Taranto, led a revolt against Joanna in Apulia; Louis of Anjou died while conducting a campaign against the rebels (1434), and Joanna herself died on the 11th of February 1435, after having appointed his son Rene her successor.
But he was soon confronted with an extremely dangerous enemy, in the person of Duke Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan, who was aiming at the sovereignty of all Italy.
On the 23rd of May 1555 Gian Pietro Carafa, the strictest of the strict, was elected as his successor, under the title of Paul IV.
It is built of brick cased in marble from the quarries which Gian Galeazzo Visconti gave in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter.
Galeazzo left a son, Gian Galeazzo, who became sole lord of Milan by seizing and imprisoning his uncle Bernabo.
His son Galeazzo Maria (1466-1476) left a son, Gian Galeazzo, a minor, whose guardian and uncle Lodovico (il Moro) usurped the duchy (1479-1500).
The largest addition to the sum of Ciceronian writings was made by Poggio (Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini) in the course of his celebrated mission to the Council of Constance (1414-1417).
Its founder Gian Galeazzo Visconti (also the founder of Milan Cathedral) laid the first stone in August 1396, and the nave was then begun in the Gothic style, but was not completed until 1465.
The academy established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua under the protection of Gian Francesco Gonzaga for the training of pupils of both sexes, might be chosen as the type of this Italian method.
The tyrants of Milan were aspiring to royal alliances; Gian Galeazzo Visconti had been married to Isabella of France; Violante Visconti, a few years later, was wedded to the English duke of Clarence.
Soon after that prince had firmly established his power as nominal guardian and protector of his nephew Gian Galeazzo but really as usurping ruler of the state, he revived a project previously mooted for the erection of an equestrian monument in honour of the founder of his house's greatness, Francesco Sforza, and consulted Lorenzo dei Medici on the choice of an artist.
Ludovico was vehemently denounced and attacked during the earlier years of his usurpation, especially by the partisans of his sister-in-law Bona of Savoy, the mother of the rightful duke, young Gian Galeazzo.
On the occasion of the marriage of the young duke Gian Galeazzo with Isabella of Aragon.
In January 1491 a double Sforza-Este marriage (Ludovico Sforza himself with Beatrice d'Este, Alfonso d'Este with Anna Sforza the sister of Gian Galeazzo) again called forth his powers as a masque and pageantmaster.
Neither is it possible to discriminate with certainty the sketches intended for the Sforza monument from others which Leonardo may have done in view of another and later commission for an equestrian statue, namely, that in honour of Ludovico's great enemy, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio.
In that year the long ousted and secluded prince, Gian Galeazzo, died under circumstances more than suspicious.
The French lieutenant in Milan, Gian Giacomo Trivulzio, the embittered enemy of Ludovico, began exercising a vindictive tyranny over the city which had so long accepted the sway of the usurper.
In 1385 the Venetians set the Scala against Carrara, who thereupon allied himself with the treacherous Gian Galeazzo Visconti.
Under Gian Francesco II., the first marquis, Ludovico III., Gian Francesco III.