Beyond the south-east corner of the lake is a depression known as the Bahr-el-Ghazal (not to be confounded with the Nile affluent of the same name).
Coming from the Tibesti highlands the Bahr-el-Ghazal has a south-westerly trend to Lake Chad.
There was also at one time communication between the Shari and the Bahr-el-Ghazal, so that the water of the firstnamed stream reached Chad by way of the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
There is now neither inlet nor outlet to the lake in this direction, the mouth of the Ghazal having become a fertile millet field.
BAHR-EL-GHAZAL, the chief western affluent of the river Nile, N.E.
The basin of the Ghazal is a large one, extending north-west to Darfur, and south-west to the Congo watershed.
The main northern feeder of the Ghazal is a large river, whose headwaters are in the country west of 2 4 ° E.
Reinforced by intermittent streams from the hills of Darfur and by considerable rivers flowing north from Dar Fertit, this river after reaching as far north as about io° 30' pursues a general south-easterly direction until it joins the Ghazal 87 m.
On many maps it is marked as the Bahr-el-Arab, a designation also used as an alternative name for the Lol l another tributary of the Ghazal, which eventually unites with the Bahr-el-Homr. The Bahr-el-Homr in its lower reaches was in 1906 completely blocked by sudd, and then brought no water into the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
The Lol maintains a fairly straight course east to about 28° E., when it turns north-east, and in about 282° E., 92° N., joins the Bahrel-Homr. The chief of the southern affluents, and that tributary of the Ghazal which contributes the largest volume of water, is the Jur, known in its upper course as the Sue, Swe or Souch.
The town of Wau (7° 42' N., 28° 3' E.), on the Jur, is the capital of the Bahr-el-Ghazal province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
The Rohl (or Yalo), farther east, empties into a wide channel known as Khor Deleb, which joins the Ghazal some 9 m.
Lake No is little more than a depression into which the waters of the Ghazal system pass near the point of junction with the Bahr-el-Jebel.
In their upper courses all the southern affluents of the Ghazal flow across a plateau of ferruginous laterite, their valleys having steep banks.
The Bahr-el-Ghazal itself is described as a drainage channel rather than a true river.
From the confluence of the Lol with the Jur, above which point none of the rivers is called Bahr-el-Ghazal, to the junction with the Nile at Lake No, is a distance of about 200 m.
At first the Ghazal flows north with lagoon-like expansions having great breadth and little depth - nowhere more than 13 ft.
Finally, the Ghazal turns east and again becomes broader until Lake No is reached.
The rise of the Ghazal river in flood time is barely 3 ft., a depth sufficient, however, to place an enormous area of country under water.
- Rumours of the existence of the Bahr-el-Ghazal led some of the Greek geographers to imagine that the source of the Nile was westward in the direction of Lake Chad.
For a considerable portion of the period between 1853 and 1865 John Petherick, a Welshman, originally a mining engineer, explored the Ghazal region, particularly the main stream and the Jur.
In 1859 a Venetian, Giovanni Miani, penetrated the southern regions of the Ghazal basin and was the first to bring back reports of a great river (the Welle) flowing west beyond the Nile watershed.
In 1862 a Frenchman named Lejean surveyed the main river, of which he published a map. In 1863 Miss Alexandrine Tinne (q.v.) with a large party of friends and scientists ascended the Ghazal with the intention of seeing how far west the basin of the Nile extended.
The efforts to destroy the slave trade in the Ghazal province led (1879-1881) to the further exploration of the river and its tributaries by Gessi Pasha, the Italian governor under General C. G.
Like the Bahr-el-Jebel the Bahr-el-Ghazal is liable to be choked by sudd.
In 1901 and following years the sudd was removed by British officers from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, the Jur and other rivers.
Comyn partly explored the northern and western affluents of the Ghazal, and threw some light on the puzzling hydrography and nomenclature of those tributaries.
"?`" Ghazal district is a larger and more brilliantly coloured animal.
After the death of the mahdi in 1885, Madibbo revolted against the khalifa, but was defeated by Kararnalla, the dervish amir of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, and was caught and executed.
The Bahr-ei-Ghazal.The first outbreak in favor of Mahdism in the Bahr-el-Ghazal took place at Liffi in August 1882, when the Dinka tribe, under Jango, revolted and was defeated by Lupton 33ey with considerable slaughter at Tel Gauna, and again in 1883
He then steamed up the river and established a post at Sobat-; and after sending a gunboat up the Bahr-el-Ghazal to establish another post at Meshra-er-Rek, he returned to Omdurman.
In the south-west, beyond the valley of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, the country gradually rises to a ridge of hills, perhaps 2000 ft.
West of the Nile the desert zone extends farther south than on the east, and Kordofan, which comes between the desert and the plains of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, is largely barren and steppe land.
In the swamp district and throughout the Bahr-el-Ghazal heavy rains (40 in.
In southern Kordofan and in the higher parts of the Bahr-el-Ghazal the silag and ebony are also common, as well as African mahogany (homraya, Khaya senegalensis) and other timber trees.
In the Ghazal province also are many rubber-producing lianas, among them the Landolphia owariensis.
East of the Bahr-el-Jebel and north of the Bahr-el-Ghazal are vast prairies covered with tall coarse grass.
Elephants are abundant in the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Bahr-el-Jebel forests, and are found in fewer numbers in the upper valle y of the Blue Nile.
The Dinkas are also widely spread over the Bahr-el-Ghazal province.
In the south-west of the Bahr-el-Ghazal are the Bongos and other tribes, and along the Nile-Congo water-parting are the A-Zande or Niam-Niam, a comparatively light-coloured race.
On the left bank of the Nile opposite Merawi are the pyramids of Nuri, and a few miles distant in the Wadi Ghazal are the ruins of a great Christian monastery, where were found gravestones with inscriptions in Greek and Coptic. Ruins of various ages extend from Merawi to the Fourth Cataract.
On the west the Bahr-el-Ghazal had been overrun by Arab or semi-Arab slave-dealers.