The Horites are to us little more than a name, though the discovery of cave-dwellers of very early date at Gezer in the excavations of1902-1905has enabled us to form some idea as to their probable culture-status and physical character.
Gezer and Taanach, for example, are said to have remained in the hands of Canaanites (Judges i.
Taanach), together with the contemporary archaeological evidence (from Lachish, Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.), represent advanced conditions of life and culture, the precise chronological limits of which cannot be determined with certainty.
Towards the close of the 13th century the Egyptian king Merneptah (Mineptah) records a successful campaign in Palestine, and alludes to the defeat of Canaan, Ascalon, Gezer, Yenuam (in Lebanon) and (the people or tribe) Israel.3 Bodies of aliens from the Levantine coast had previously threatened Egypt and Syria, and at the beginning of the 12th century they formed a coalition on land and sea which taxed all the resources of Rameses III.
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
Objects of typical Minoan forms. Farther to the east the recent excavations on the old Philistine sites like Gezer have brought to light swords and vases of Cretan manufacture in the later palace style.
35), Gezer (ib.
Macalister at Gezer (Pal.
Also the Gezer seal, fig.
GEZER (the Kazir of Tethmosis [Thothmesj III.'s list of Palestinian cities and the Gazri of the Amarna tablets), a royal Canaanite city on the boundary of Ephraim, in the maritime plain (Josh.
Throughout the history of the Maccabean wars Gezer or Gazara plays the part of an important frontier post.
The position of Gezer is defined by Jerome (Onomasticon, s.v.) as four Roman miles north (contra septentrionem) of Nicopolis ('Amwas).
They read in every case nu 1 0nn, "the boundary of Gezer," with the name Alkios in Greek, probably that of the governor under whom the inscriptions were cut.
Also Bible Sidelights from the Mound of Gezer, by the same writer.
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
2 Thus, the capture of Gezer by Egypt (1 Kings ix.
Only at Gezer - perhaps Philistine, 2 Sam.
So far, however, of the cities lying within or immediately exposed to Philistine influence, the discoveries at Gezer are unique.'
For his distinguished consort, who brought Gezer as a dowry, a special palace was built (iii.
Further speculation is caused when it is found that Solomon fortifies such cities as Megiddo, Beth-horon and Tamar, and that the Egyptian Pharaoh had slain the Canaanites of Gezer (ix.
Libya was wasted, the Hittites pacified, Canaan, Ashkelon (Ascalon), Gezer, Yenoam sacked and plundered: Israel is desolated, his seed is not, Khor (Palestine) has become a widow (without protector) for Egypt.
The most important data bearing upon the first great period are given elsewhere in this work, and it is proposed to offer here a more general survey.5 To the prehistoric ages belong the palaeolithic and neolithic flints, from the distribution of which an attempt might be made to give a synthetic sketch of early Palestinian man.6 A burial cave at Gezer has revealed the existence of a race of slight build and stature, muscular, with elongated crania, and thick and heavy skull-bones.
Physically they are quite distinct from the normal type, also found at Gezer, which was taller, of stronger build, with well-developed skulls, and is akin both to the Sinaitic and Palestinian type illustrated upon Egyptian monuments from c. 3000 B.C., and to the modern native.
The diminutive cities of this cosmopolitan Palestine were ruled by kings, not necessarily of the native stock; some were appointed - and even anointed - by the Egyptian king, and the small extent of these city-states is obvious from the references to the kings of such near-lying sites as Jerusalem, Gezer, Ashkelon and Lachish.
Macalister's complete memoir of the Gezer excavations.
These still indicate communication with Egypt and the north (Syria, Asia Minor; Assyria and the Levant not excluded), and even when a novel culture presents itself, as in certain graves at Gezer, the affinities are with Cyprus and Asia Minor (Caria) of about the r rth or 10th century.'
Sam'al), in Cyprus, Gezer, and in Moab.
The excavations (at Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.) indicate a persisting gross and cruel idolatry, utterly opposed to the demands of the law and the prophets.'
The discovery at Gezer of Assyrian contracttablets (651 and 648 B.C.) - one relating to the sale of land by a certain Nethaniah - at least suggests the prevalence of Assyrian custom, and this is confirmed by the technical business methods illustrated in Jer.
In 1902 it began the excavation of Gezer under the direction of R.
==Palestine== Recent excavations, especially at Gezer, have shown that the earliest altars, or rather sacrifice hearths, in Palestine were circular spaces marked out by small stones set on end.
6-io) and other fights in that district as far as Gezer (vv.
It may be mentioned here that on the first of these sites a cuneiform tablet belonging to the Amarna series was discovered; at Gezer, a deed of sale; at Tell-el-Hasy the remains of a Babylonian stele, three seals, and three cylinders with Babylonian mythological representations; at Tell-el-Mutasellim, a seal bearing a Babylonian legend, and at Taannek, twelve tablets and fragments of tablets were found near the fragments of the terracotta box in which they were stored.
The splendid alignment of monoliths at Gezer is described in detail in P.E.F.
Gezer, plausibly identified with the Gezer of 1 Kings ix.
3 The places have retained their sacred character despite political and religious vicissitudes; they are far older than their present names, and such is the conservatism of the east that it is not surprising when, for example, a sacred tomb at Gezer stands quite close to the site of an ancient holy place, about 3000 years old, the existence of which was first made known in the course of excavation.
V.); and several sites in its neighbourhood, together with important fortresses like Gezer, Megiddo and Taanach, were not held by Israel at the first.
At Gezer a pre-Semitic place of worship was found in which three such hearths stood together, and drained into a cave which may reasonably be supposed to have been regarded as the residence of the divinity.
At Gezer no definite altar was discovered in the great High Place; though it is possible that a bank of intensely hard compact earth, in which were embedded a large number of human skulls, took its place.
One such was discovered in the Gezer excavations, dating about 200 B.C. It was a slab of polished limestone about 6 in.