De Rohan, &c. (Fr.) by P. Macmahon (1786); Compendio della vita e delle gesta di Giuseppe Balsamo denominato it conte di Cagliostro (Rome, 1791); Sierke, Schweirmer and Schwindler zu Ende des XVIII.
The chronicler Saxo Grammaticus mentions in his Gesta Danorum the "rampart of Jutland" (Jutiae moenia) as having been once more extended by Valdemar the Great (1157-1182), which has been cited among the proofs that Schleswig (S4 nderjylland) forms an integral part of Jutland (Manuel hist.
The story of his death is given in two widely different forms, by Saxo in his Gesta Danorum (ed Holder, pp. 69 ff.) and in the prose Edda (Gylfaginning, cap. 49).
Beissel, Geschichte der trierer Kirchen (Trier, 1888); "Gesta Treverorum" (ed.
From the first he had an Eastern principality in his mind's eye; and if we may judge from the follower of Bohemund who wrote the Gesta Francorum, there had already been some talk at Constantinople of Antioch as the seat of this principality.
The siege was long protracted; the mass of the pilgrims were anxious to proceed to Jerusalem, and, as the altered tone of the author of the Gesta sufficiently indicates, thoroughly weary of the obstinate political bickerings of Raymund_and Bohemund.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
In writing his account of the First Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary Western authorities - the Gesta Francorum, Raymond of Agiles, and Fulcher.
(a) The three chief eye-witnesses are the anonymous author of the Gesta Francorum, Raymund of Agiles, and Fulcher.
The anonymous author of the Gesta (see Hagenmeyer's edition, Heidelberg, 1890) was a Norman of South Italy, who followed Bohemund, and accordingly depicts the progress of the First Crusade from a Norman point of view.
Finally, to contemporary writers we may add contemporary letters, especially those written by Stephen of Blois and Anselm of Ribemont, and the three letters sent to the West by the crusading princes during the First Crusade (see Hagenmeyer, Epistulae et Chartae, &c., Innsbruck, 1901).2 (b) The later compilations are chiefly based on the Gesta, whose uncouth style many writers set themselves to mend.
In the first place, there is the Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere of Tudebod, which according to Besly, writing in 1641, is the original from which the Gesta was a mere plagiarism - an absolute inversion of the truth, as von Sybel first proved two centuries later.
Secondly, besides the plagiarist Tudebod, there are the artistic redacteurs of the Gesta, who confess their indebtedness, but plead the bad style of their original - Guibert of Nogent, Balderich of Dol, Robert of Reims (all c. 1120-1130), and Fulco, the author of a Virgilian poem on the Crusades, continued by Gilo (ob.
In the second part he had his own knowledge of events and the information of his contemporaries as his source: in the first he used the same authorities which we still possess - the Gesta, Fulcher, and Albert of Aix - in somewhat of an eclectic spirit, choosing now here, now there, according as he could best weave a pleasant narrative, but not according to any real critical principle.
His edition of the Gesta, pp. 62-68).
Hagenmeyer inclines to believe in an original author, distinct from Albert the copyist; and he thinks that this original author (whether or no he was present during the Crusade) used the Gesta and also Fulcher, though he had probably also "eigene Notizen and Aufzeichnungen."
The Gesta Friderici Primi of Otto of Freising (who joined in the Second Crusade) gives some details from the German point of view (i.
There seems no doubt that it is a piece of plagiary, and that its writer, Richard, "canon of the Holy Trinity" in London, stands to the Carmen as Tudebod to the Gesta, or Albert of Aix to his supposed original.
Ralph of Coggeshall, who used information gained from crusaders, and William of Newburgh, who had access to a work by Richard I.'s chaplain Anselm, which is now lost.4 The French side is presented in Rigord's Gesta Philippi Augusti and in the Gesta (an abridgment and continuation of Rigord) and the Philippeis of William the Breton.
For the Crusades of St Louis the chief authorities are Joinville's life of his master (whom he accompanied to Egypt on the Seventh Crusade), and de Nangis' Gesta Ludovici regis.
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
The two earlier books are scarcely more than a copy of the Gesta regum Francorum, but the third book, which deals with the period from 814 to 1028, is of considerable historical importance.
His other writings include the Gesta abbatum monasterii S.
The Gesta is a history of the abbots of St Albans from the foundation of the abbey to 1381.
One of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in Gesta Francorum, a history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).
Rule, Rolls Series, 1884); William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum and Historia novella (ed.
Of the original authorities the most important are the Gesta Willelmi, by William of Poitiers (ed.
Amongst the earliest Latin works that claim attention are the " Chronicle " (Gesta Hungarorum), by the " anonymous notary " of King Bela, probably Bela II.
Pp. 570-670 (Copenhagen, 1897-1905); Saxo, Gesta Danorum, books to-16 (Strassburg, 1886).
Of England, by his dying in the Jerusalem church of Rome - and that imaginative story of the statue with the legend "Strike here," which, after having found its way into the Gesta Romanorum, has of late been revived in the Earthly Paradise.
Among the most notable examples of his work for the Rolls series are the prefaces to Roger of Hoveden, the Gesta regum of William of Malmesbury, the Gesta Henrici II., and the Memorials of St.
Primary: The Saxon Chronicle, sub ann.; William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, i.
Venni, Elogio storico alle gesta del Beato Odorico (V,enice, 1761); H.
This is a history in four books, the material for which was mainly drawn from the anonymous Gesta Francorum, but some valuable information has been added by Baudry.
Stubbs, Rolls Series); William of Malmesbury, Gesta regum (ed.
He collected the works of several French writers who as contemporaries described the crusades, and published them under the title Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611).
The more important of the general chronicles are: the Gesta Henrici Secundi, ascribed to Benedict of Peterborough (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1867); the Chronica of Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Series, 4 vols., 1868-71); the Chronica of Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Series, 1879); the Imagines Historiarum of Ralph of Diceto (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1876); the Historia Rerum Anglicarum of William of Newburgh (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, '' &c., Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1884-85); the De rebus gestis Ricardi Primi of Richard of Devizes (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, &c., vol.
Iii., Rolls Series, 1886); the Chronicon Anglicanum of Ralph of Coggeshall (Rolls Series, 1875); the Flores Historiarum of Roger of Wendover (Rolls Series, 3 vols., 1886-89); the Gesta Philippi Augusti of Rigord (Societe de l'histoire de France, Paris, 1882) and of Guillaume le Breton (op. cit.).
Peregrinorum et gesta Regis Ricardi; this last, with some valuable historical letters, is printed in W.
Diimmler, Geschichte des ostfrankischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887-1888); and Gesta Berengarii imperatoris (Halle, 1871); and F.
The famous description of the crusades, gesta Dei per Francos, was evidently to Villehardouin a plain matter-of-fact description, and it no more occurred to him to doubt the divine favour being extended to the expeditions against Alexius or Theodore than to doubt that it was shown to expeditions against Saracens and Turks.
Round, Feudal England; and, for original authorities, the works of Orderic Vitalis and William of Poitiers, and of Florence of Worcester; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; William of Malmesbury's Gesta pontificum, and Lanfranc's works, ed.
The most important is the chronicle called Gesta consulum Andegavorum, of which only a poor edition exists (Chroniques des conies d'Anjou, published by Marchegay and Salmon, with an introduction by E.
823, 894, 9 0 4, 9 1 3, 9 21, 994; William of Malmesbury, Gesta Regum, Rolls Series (ed.
Bernardo is the hero of a cantar de gesta (chanson de geste) written to please the anarchical spirit of the nobles.
See Saxo, Gesta Danorum, ed.
Le Prevost, Paris, 1845); the first continuation of Symeon's Historia Ecclesiae Dunelmensis (Rolls ed., 1882); William of Malmesbury in the Gesta pontificum (Rolls ed., 1870); and the Peterborough Chronicle (Rolls ed., 1861).
Skene (Edinburgh, 1871-1872); Andrew of Wyntoun, The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, edited by David Laing (Edinburgh, 1872-1879); Gesta Edwardi de Carnarvan, by a canon of Bridlington, edited by W.
(1371), he was aided by Fordun's Gesta Annalia, but from that point to the close the work is original and of contemporary importance, especially for James I., with whose death it ends.
901), of whom William of Malmesbury writes (Gesta Regum Anglorum, ii.