The patriotism and Pan-Germanism of the gymnastic societies (Turuvereine) and students associations (Burschenschaften) expressed themselves with more noise than discretion; in the South-German parliaments the platitudes and catchwords of the Revolution were echoed.
It was used by the Nationalist parties, in Austria as well as in Germany, to spiead the conception of Pan-Germanism; the Boer3 as Low Germans were regarded as the representatives of Teutonic civilization, and it seemed possible that the conception might be used to bring about a closer friendship, and even alliance, with Holland.
Germanism had so far served as the basis of the Austrian system, not as a national ideal, but because " it formed a sort of unnational mediating, and common element among the contradictory and clamorous racial tendencies."
But with the growth of the idea of German unity, Germanism had established a new ideal, of which the centre lay beyond the boundaries of the Austrian monarchy, and which was bound to be antagonistic to the aspirations of other races.
The Jacobinism of the Vienna democracy was not really representative of any widespread opinion even in the German parts of Austria, while its loud-voiced Germanism excited the lively opposition of the other races.
These place him in the sacred circle near to Heine and Leopardi, and, though strongly individualistic, it is curious to note in them the influence of Germanism on the mind of a southerner and a descendant of the Catholic navigators of the 16th century.
In the latter part of the 19th century, however, this state of things began to be greatly modified owing to the strong Polish national movement which threatened to drive back the boundaries of Germanism in the eastern provinces of Prussia, as they had already been driven back in Bohemia.