He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies.
Whatever it may have been in remote geological periods, it is now extremely limited both in size and numbers.
Everett, and issued in 1887 in six sheets, by the Geological Survey of Victoria.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
Its complexity reflects the corresponding intricacy of geographical and geological evolution.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
Into types has usually had regard rather to geological structure than to external form, so that some geologists would even apply the name of a mountain range to a region not distinguished by relief from the rest of the country if it bear geological evidence of having once been a true range.
He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
Aichino, of the Geological Survey of Italy, will be found in the Enciclopedia delle arte e industrie (Turin, 1898).
Geological evidence shows that this gap was once bridged by a continuous isthmus which according to the temple records was breached by a violent storm in 1480.
Hilly plateaus are still in the same geological phase, and are dotted with numberless lakes and ponds, while the rivers continue to dig out their yet undetermined channels.
C. Fremont and Howard Stansbury (1806-1863) furnished a general knowledge of the hydrographic features and geological lacustrine history of the Great Basin, and this knowledge was rounded out by the field work of the U.S. Geological Survey from 1879 to 1883, under the direction of Grove Karl Gilbert.
Gilbert's Lake Bonneville (U.S. Geological Survey, Monographs, No.
For reference to later geological literature, and discussion of the Basin Ranges, see J.
- Clarence King, Report of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel (Professional Papers of the Engineer Department, U.S. Army); George M.
4 (June 1895); idem., The Geological History of Lake Lahontan, a Quaternary Lake of North-western Nevada (Washington, 1885), U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, No.
The Mediterranean is all that remains of a great ocean which at an early geological epoch, before the formation of the Atlantic, encircled half the globe along a line of latitude.
Corresponding with this difference of structure there is also a difference in the geological succession.
Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.
See the publications of the United States Geological Survey (especially Professional Paper No.
In the geological history of France there have been two great periods of folding since Archean times.
There were, moreover, other and broader oscillations which raised or lowered extensive areas withbut much crumpling of the strata, and to these are due some of the most important breaks in the geological series.
From a geological standpoint, the Great Australian Plain and the fertile valley of the Nile have had a similar origin.
- The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries, which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing, mainly, to their different geological structures.
The numerous facts, geological, geographical and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney.
The next geological formation which is represented is the Eocene, consisting of nummulitic limestone, sandstone and schist.
For De Maillet not only has a definite conception of the plasticity of living things, and of the production of existing species by the modification of their predecessors, but he clearly apprehends the cardinal maxim of modern geological science, that the explanation of the structure of the globe is to be sought in the deductive application to geological phenomena of the principles established inductively by the study of the present course of nature.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.
With the exception just named, the islands, which agree very closely in geological structure, are mountainous, and present, perhaps, the most wonderful example of volcanic rocks to be found on the globe.
The Spermatophyta fall into two classes, Gymncsperms (q.v.) and Angiosperms; the former are the more primitive group, appearing earlier in geological time and showing more resemblance in the course of their life-history to the Pteridophyta.
- For physical description, resources, industries, &c., see State Board of Agriculture, North Carolina and its Resources (Raleigh, 1896); North Carolina Geological Survey Reports (Raleigh, 1852, sqq.); the publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey (Raleigh, 1893, sqq.), e.g.
A general popular description of Russia entitled Rossiya, containing excellent geographical, geological and other descriptions of separate regions, and very well-chosen illustrations, was begun in 1899 under the editorship of V.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
Elie de Beaumont, in his speculations on the relation between the direction of mountain ranges and their geological age and character, was feeling towards a comprehensive theory of the forms of crustal relief; but his ideas were too geometrical, and his theory that the earth is a spheroid built up on a rhombic dodecahedron, the pentagonal faces of which determined the direction of mountain ranges, could not be proved.'
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
From the descriptive or topographical point of view, geometrical form alone should be con- Land sidered; but the origin and geological structure of forms. land forms must in many cases be taken into account when dealing with the function they exercise in the control of mobile distributions.
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
Heilprin, Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals (1887); O.
The distribution of fossils frequently makes it possible to map out approximately the general features of land and sea in long-past geological periods, and so to enable the history of crustal relief to be traced.'
De Lapparent and Elisee Reclus - has his individual point of view, one devoting more attention to the results of geological processes, another to anthropological conditions, and the rest viewing the subject in various blendings of the extreme lights.
It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.