The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.
In the later 4th century the name survives only (a) as a geographical expression for part of the coast of Asia Minor, (b) in European Greece as the name of that section of the Northern Amphictyony in which Athens and its colonies were reckoned.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
From the geographical position of the Netherlands, Presbyterianism there took its tone from France.
The difficulty is increased by the fact that the geographical descriptions given in the Old Testament, the Apocrypha and the writings of Josephus are very short, and, having been written for those who were acquainted with the places, convey insufficient information to historians of the present day, when the sites are so greatly altered.
The references to it in the Pentateuch are confined to rough geographical indications of the latitude of the transJordanic camp of the Israelites in Moab before their crossing of the river.
The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.
Bela did his utmost to place his kingdom in a state of defence, and appealed betimes to the pope, the duke of Austria and the emperor for assistance; but in February and March 1241 the Tatars burst through the Carpathian passes; in April Bela himself, after a gallant stand, was routed on the banks of the Saj6 and fled to the islands of Dalmatia; and for the next twelve months the kingdom of Hungary was merely a geographical expression.
The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
The observation of the facts of geographical distribution.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
The segregation may be geographical, or may be the result of preferential mating, or of seasonal mating, and its effects plainly can be made no more of than proximate or empirical laws of differentiation, of great importance in codifying and simplifying the facts to be explained.
" Perplexity " arose where the suffragans " could not owing to the geographical limitations of their competence do full justice " (Maitland, pp. 118-119).
The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
They state that the term habitat is understood to include everything relating to the factors operative in a geographically defined locality, so far as these factors influence plants (1910: 24); but the exclusion of geographical and historical factors from the concept of the habitat does not appear to be either desirable or logical.
This resemblance, however, only has reference to the general aspect or physiognomy of the vegetation and to the plant forms: the fioristic composition of the various sclerophyllousand other physiognomically alliedassociations in the various geographical districts is very different; and indeed it is true that, just as the general physiognomy of plant associations is related to climate, so their floristic composition is related to geographical position.
Ecological Adapt ations.It is now possible to consider the ecological adaptations which the members of plant cornmunties show in a given geographical district such as western Europe, of which England of course forms a part.
We arrive thus at the essential aim of geographical botany, which, as stated by Schimper, is an inquiry into the causes of differences existing among the various floras.
As Clement Reid remarked: World-wide floras, such as seem to characterize some of the older periods, have ceased to be, and plants are distributed more markedly according to geographical provinces and in climatic zones.
Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
Such a summary of the salient facts in the, geographical distributio~ of plants sufficiently indicates the tangled fabric of the earths existing floral covering.
Its complexity reflects the corresponding intricacy of geographical and geological evolution.
History Of Geographical Theory The earliest conceptions of the earth, like those held by the primitive peoples of the present day, are difficult to discover and almost impossible fully to grasp. Early generalizations, as far as they were made from known facts, were usually expressed in symbolic language, and for our present purpose it is not profitable to speculate on the underlying truths which may sometimes be suspected in the old mythological cosmogonies.
Dessalles looked in amazement at the prince, who was talking of the Niemen when the enemy was already at the Dnieper, but Princess Mary, forgetting the geographical position of the Niemen, thought that what her father was saying was correct.
From the time the first person said and proved that the number of births or of crimes is subject to mathematical laws, and that this or that mode of government is determined by certain geographical and economic conditions, and that certain relations of population to soil produce migrations of peoples, the foundations on which history had been built were destroyed in their essence.