This was done by the elder Geoffroy St-Hilaire (Ann.
In its original form, the doctrine of " arrest of development," as advocated by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Serres, was no doubt an over-statement of the case.
Geoffroy in 1762, adopted by P. A.
Geoffroy (Insectes qui se trouvent aux environs de Paris, Paris, 1762); A.
It received the benefit of Isidore Geoffroy St-Hilaire's assistance.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
In the following year .another set of hints - of a kind so different that probably no one then living would have thought it possible that they should ever be brought in correlation with those of Nitzsch - are contained in a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of the Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle of Paris by Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire in 1807.1 Here we have it stated as a general truth (p. too) that young birds have the ' sternum formed of five separate pieces - one in the middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to which the ribs are .articulated - all, however, finally uniting to form the single " breast-bone."
Pp. 69-101, and especially pp. 135, 136), which appeared in 1818, Geoffroy St-Hilaire explained the views he had adopted at greater length.
This fact in the ostrich appears to have been known already to Geoffroy St-Hilaire from his own observation in Egypt, but does not seem to have been published by him.
This fact was fastened upon by Geoffroy in his reply, which was a week later presented to the Academy, but was not published in full until the following year, when it appeared in the Annales du Museum (ser.
Geoffroy here maintained that the five centres of ossification existed in the duck just as in the fowl, and that the real difference of the process lay in the period at which they made their appearance, a circumstance which, though virtually proved by the preparations Cuvier had used, had been by him overlooked or misinterpreted.
Nor, argued Geoffroy, was it true to say, - as Cuvier had said, that the like occurred in the pigeons and true passerines.
As regards the struthious birds, they could not be likened to the duck, for in them at no age was there any indication of a single median centre of ossification, as Geoffroy had satisfied himself by his own observations made in Egypt many years before.
Cuvier seems to have acquiesced in the corrections of his views made by Geoffroy, and attempted no rejoinder; but the attentive and impartial student of the discussion will see that a good deal was really wanting to make the latter's reply effective, though, as events have shown, the former was hasty in the conclusions at which he arrived, having trusted too much to the first appearance of centres of ossification, for, had his observations in regard to other birds been carried on with the same attention to detail as in regard to the fowl, he would certainly have reached some very different results.
The points at issue between Cuvier and Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire before mentioned naturally attracted the attention of L'Herminier, who in 1836 presented to the French Academy the results of his researches into the mode Isidore of growth of that bone which in the adult bird he had already studied to such good purpose.
Pp. 107-115), and from the report upon them by Isidore Geoffroy 1 He says from Oken's Naturgeschichte far Schulen, published in 1821, but the division is to be found in that author's earlier Lehrbuch der Zoologie (ii.
Geoffroy in 1741 pointed out that the fat or oil recovered from a soap solution by neutralization with a mineral acid differs from the original fatty substance by dissolving readily in alcohol, which is not the case with ordinary fats and oils.
These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
GEOFFROY DE VILLEHARDOUIN (c. 1160 - c. 1213), the first vernacular historian of France, and perhaps of modern Europe, who possesses literary merit, is rather supposed than known to have been born at the château from which he took his name, near Troyes, in Champagne, about the year 1160.
Geoffroy, son of Claude Joseph Geoffroy, whose contribution to our knowledge of this metal appeared in the Memoires de l'academie francaise for 1753.
Geoffroy, in a memoir presented to the Royal Academy at Paris, supported the views of Grew and others as to the sexes of plants.
Geoffroy read a paper to the French Academy, showing that sal ammoniac must be formed by sublimation; but his opinion was opposed so violently by W.
Geoffroy in 1716 and 1723 were still more decisive, and those of H.
The chief contributions of Cuvier's great philosophical opponent, Etienne Geoffroy St Hilaire (1772-1844), are to be found in his maintenance with Lamarck of the doctrine of the mutability of species.
The first exponent of the theory of sudden appearance of new parts and new types, to our knowledge, was Geoffroy St Hilaire, who suggested saltatory evolution through the direct action of the environment on development, as explaining the abrupt transitions in the Mesozoic Crocodilia and the origin of the birds from the reptiles.
As we have seen, this hypothesis was fathered by Geoffroy St Hilaire in 1830 from his studies of Mesozoic Crocodilia, was sustained by Haldemann, and quite recently has been revived by such eminent palaeontologists as Louis Dollo and A.
P. 77; Lewis, Materia Medica, p. 324; Geoffroy, Tract.
ETIENNE FRANCOIS GEOFFROY (1672-1731), French chemist, born in Paris on the 13th of February 1672, was first an apothecary and then practised medicine.
His brother Claude Joseph, known as Geoffroy the younger (1685-1752), was also an apothecary and chemist who, having a considerable knowledge of botany, devoted himself especially to the study of the essential oils in plants.
Chim., 1805), and Etienne Geoffroy SaintHilaire (Gilb.
It has been recommended by C. Darwin, and at one of the early meetings of the Societe Zoologique d'Acclimatation, at Paris, Isodore Geoffroy St Hilaire insisted that it was the only method by which acclimatization was possible.
Here he is supposed to have been at school with the brothers Du Bellay, with Geoffroy d'Estissac and others.
In 1524, the year of the publication of Tiraqueau's book above cited, his friend Geoffroy d'Estissac procured from Clement VII.
From a Franciscan he became a Benedictine, and from Fontenay he moved to Maillezais, of which Geoffroy d'Estissac was bishop. But even this learned and hospitable retreat did not apparently satisfy Rabelais.
This stay furnishes some biographical documents of importance in the shape of letters to Geoffroy d'Estissac, of the already-mentioned Supplicatio pro Apostasia, and of the bull of absolution which was the reply to it.
The supposed allusions to the Pleiade date from a time when Ronsard was a small boy, and are mainly borrowed from an earlier writer still, Geoffroy Tory.
In the square there is a statue of the naturalist, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, who was born in Etampes.