If all knowledge is drawn from experience, statements universal in form are but generalizations, holding within the limits of actual experience, or advanced beyond them at our peril.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
But every genuine attempt to overcome its difficulties brings us into closer touch with the period we are examining; and though we may not be able to throw our conclusions into the form of large generalizations, we shall get to know something of the operation of the forces which determined the economic future of England; understand more clearly than our forefathers did, for we have more information than they could command, and a fuller appreciation of the issues, the broad features of English development, and be in a position to judge fairly well of the measures they adopted in their time.
All the assumptions we require are furnished by observation of people in the mass and the larger generalizations of statistics.
The fact that Adam Smith, with the meagre materials of the 18th century at his disposal, saw his way to important generalizations which later research has established on a firm basis, may enhance greatly the reputation of Adam Smith, but does not strengthen the generalizations.
Hence his efforts, praiseworthy as they were from several points of view, and particularly so in regard to some details, failed to satisfy the philosophic taxonomer when generalizations and deeper principles were concerned, and in his practice in respect of certain technicalities of classification he was, in the eyes of the orthodox, a transgressor.
The value of Dalton's generalizations can hardly be overestimated, notwithstanding the fact that in several cases they needed correction.
Few new fields were opened, and apart from a more complete knowledge of the nature of salts, no valuable generalizations were attained.
In such a consideration we have to make use not only of the fact just mentioned, but of three important generalizations which serve as it were as implements for the proper estimation of the relationships of any series of organic forms. First of all there is the generalization that the relationships of the various forms of animals (or of plants) to one another is that of the ultimate twigs of a much-branching genealogical tree.
A result of the very greatest importance arising from the application of the generalizations of Darwinism to human development and to the actual phase of existing human population is that education has no direct effect upon the mental or physical features of the race or stock: it can only affect those of the individual.
He urged that history is not to be treated as an exact science, and that the effects of individual character and the operations of the human will necessarily render generalizations vague and consequently useless.
The medicine of the i 8th century is notable, like that of the latter part of the 17th, for the striving after complete theoretical systems. The influence of the iatro-physical school was by no means exhausted; and in England, especially through the indirect influence of Sir Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) great astronomical generalizations, it took on a mathematical aspect, and is sometimes known as iatro-mathematical.
Thus we acquire a bodyof empirical generalizations as to social phenomena, and then we connect the generalizations with the positive theory of human nature.
On the other hand, if laws of social phenomena, empirically generalized from history, can, when once suggested, be affiliated to the known laws of human nature; if the direction actually taken by the developments and changes of human society, can be seen to be such as the properties of man and of his dwelling-place made antecedently probable, the empirical generalizations are raised into positive laws, and sociology becomes a science."
The view of mankind on which such generalizations are usually based, taking little account of individual character, was highly distasteful to him.
The Stahlian theory, originally a theory of combustion, came to be a general theory of chemical reactions, since it provided simple explanations of the ordinary chemical processes(when regarded qualitatively) and permitted generalizations which largely stimulated its acceptance.
John Fiske, The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America (2 vols., Boston, 1900) is admirable in its generalizations but unreliable in its details.
The book of Proverbs consists essentially of generalizations on human character and conduct, with (especially in chs.
A small nucleus of the proverbs may be Solomon's; but the great majority represent no doubt the generalizations of a long succession of " wise men."
Invulnerable in exact anatomical description and comparison, he failed in all his philosophical generalizations, even in those strictly within the domain of anatomy.
His famous " law of correlation," which by its apparent brilliancy added enormously to his prestige, is not supported by modern philosophical anatomy, and his services to stratigraphy were diminished by his generalizations as to a succession of sudden extinctions and renovations of life.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
As among the vertebrates, materials were accumulating rapidly for the great generalizations which were to follow in the third period.
The more complete the picture, however, which may here be obtained of Manichaeisrn, the more cautious must we be in making generalizations from it, for it is beyond doubt that Western Manichaeism adopted Christian elements which are wanting in the original and in the Oriental Manichaeism.
His generalizations are vivid and enlightening.
The most usual generalizations adopted by almost all the historians are: freedom, equality, enlightenment, progress, civilization, and culture.